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December the 8 th - 1685. 
Robert Midgley, 

. . ■ - . -.. a — | .. ... ____^_^ 

Painting Illuftrated 

I N 


Containing fome Choice Oifervations upon 
the ART. Together with 



Of the Moft 

Eminent Painters, 


CIMABUE, tothetimcofRAPHAEL 


With an EXPLANATION of the 

Difficult Terms- 
London, Printed by John Gain^ for the Author, 

And are to be Sold by Walter Kettilby t at the Blfhofs 
Head, in St. Paul's Church-Tard. M. DC. LXXXV. 

TVA ~~ 









O F 




My Lord, 

HE Liberal ARTS 
( among fi which, with the 
Greeks and Romans, 
I place Painting ) do fo 
naturally depend upon the 
Countenance of Great Men, 
that without their Protection, theyfeldom take 
Root enough to defend themfelves againft 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 
Envy and Ignorance : Nor, on the other 
fide, does Greatnefs it [elf, though never fo 
Luxuriant, either fit Eafie in its prefent 
Enjoyments, or live Kindly in the Memory of 
Bojlerity, without thofe Ornaments of its "Pow- 
er, the Arts ^/Sciences. But this Ali- 
ana of Knowledge and Greatnefs, is always 
more Confpicuous, where the Maecenas is not 
only a Lover, but a Judge of the Beauties 
of Ingenious Productions : This king, where 
could I have fought a Patron, but in your 
Lordjhip, for the Improvement of an Art, 
which makes one of your chiefefi Delights ; and 
in the Knowledge of which, you /bow as much 
Skill as the Artifts themfelves do in the Exe* 
cution. Secret Beauties are the great Charm 
of Life to Dilicate Souls -, but they want nice 
Obfervers to be enjoyed ; and Pictures have 
thatfingular Priviledge, that though theyfeem 
Legible Books, yet they are per feci Hiero- 
glyphicks to the Vulgar, and are all alike 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

to them. "Tis to remedy in fome meafure, this 
Misfortune of fo nohle an Art, that I have 
taken the pains -,your Lord/lip will fee if you 
daign to look into this Volume, which is 
Humbly dedicated to you : The World, I am 
fure, will jufii fie my choice of a Patron, what- 
ever they may do for the Book it felf -, for in 
your Lordjhip, be fides Noblenefs of Birth, and 
Eminency of Fortune and Dignity, there is an 
Innate Sweetnefs and Candour, accompanied 
toith a Serenity of Temper, and Fir nine fs of 
Courage-, which draw to you the Vows and Re- 
fpetls of Mankind, and make Offerings of this 
Nature to be but juft Tributes to fo known a 
Merit* Ijhould hardly, after this, dare to 
mention my particular Obligations to your No- 
ble Family, could I hope for a more favoura- 
ble Occafion of Fxpr effing that Gratitude 
which I owe : They were laid upon me, not only 
in my Infancy, but even fome days after my: 
Bntb -, and fo Geiurcufiy contrived), that they 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

are like to loft as long as I live : And there- 
fore I reckon my Dependance to be apart of 
my Being ; andjhall as fo on forfeit the one as 
the other : I am only forry that Fortune. 
concurs fo little with my Wifies, as to have 
made me hitherto an Ufelefs Servant to your 
Lordfiip, whofe particular Merit I have al- 
ways as much Admired, as others may do the 
Splendour of your Vortune ; the Influence of 
both will, 1 hope* be felt by this Noble Art of 
Painting ; and I in my particular, Jhall be 
continually ftudying how to exprefs my De- 
votion to your Lordfhip's Service, in a 
better Manner than by barely aiming, as I 
do now, that I am, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordfhips mod Humble, 
Obedient, and Obliged Sef v&nt, 

William Aglionby. 

The Preface. 

F the defire of per- 
petuating our Me- 
mory's to pofterity, 
be one of the no- 
bleft of our Aile6ti- 
ons here below, cer- 
tainly thofe ARTS by which we 
attain that kind of Immortality, 
do befl deferve to be Cultiva- 
ted by us. Therefore Hi ft or inns and 
Poets, who keep, as it were, the 
Kegiflers of Fame, have always been 
a Courted 

The Preface. 
Courted by the Great and by the 
Good, as knowing that the Merit of 
their A&ions depended upon their 
Fens ; but becaufe thofe very Men 
through whole Hands fuch Glorious 
Atchievements were to pafs, might 
either be led away with Paffion, or 
fwayed with Prejudice, to make a falfe 
Reprefentation of them totheWirid. 
Providence yet kinder, gave us two 
Arts, which might e&prefs the very 
Lines of the Face, the Air of the 
Countenance, and in it a great part 
of the Mind of all thofe whom they 
iliould undertake to Reprefent ; and 
thefe are, Sculpture and Painting. 

Michael Angela, the flimoufeft 
Sculptor of thefe Modern Ages % looking 
one day earneftly upon a Statue of 
St. Marfc made by Donatello, after 


The Preface. 

having long admired it, faid at lait, 
That if Saint M&rjjiwere like that Statue, 
be would have believed his Gofpel upon bis 
Phy fionomy, for it was the bonefieft Face 
that ever was made* Tis hard to lay, 
whether he commended the Artift, 
the Saint, or the Art it felf moft by 
this Expreflion : But this Inference 
we may make from it, That if the 
Faces of Heroes do exprefs the Great- 
nefs of their Minds,thofe Arts which 
perpetuate their Memory that way, 
are the trueft of all Records. This 
made Alexander fo follicitous, that 
none but^/Z^fhould draw his P/~ 
Qwre : and caufed Charles the Fifth to 
value himfelf, upon having fat three 
times to Titian, as if he had obtained 
three Vi&ories over Death and Mor- 
tality. But there is in thefe Arts a 

a 2 Charm 

The Preface, 
Charm for the Survivour s as well as ftt 
the IW : And who is there of a 
Vertuous MIND, or an Infpi 
ing SOUL, who is not infinitely 
pleafed to contemplate the Looks, the 
J\deen, the Air of thole who have done 
great things amongft Men : the Ma- 
jefty of Alexander ; the Inarp Quiche ft 
and piercing Selerity of Q/dr ,• the 
Tranquil Magnanimity of SW/w ^ the 
Beauty of Cleopatra, are ftill extant in 
their Statues and Medals to fuch a 
degree, that none of the Curious would 
ever go about to give, them another 
Countenance thanthofe that have been, 
tranfmitted to us this way; 

I fhall not undertake to determine 
here>which of thefe two Arts deferves 
our Admiration moft : The one* 
riiakes Marble-Stone and Brafs foft and 
tender : the other, by a ftrange fort 


The Preface. 

of Imhantmenty makes a little Cloth and 
Colours {how Living figures, that upon 
a flat Superficies feem Round, and de- 
ceives the E/£ into a Belief of Solids, 
while there is nothing but Lights and 
Shadows there : But this I may fay in 
favour of the Art of Painting, whofe 
praifesl am now to Celebrate, That it 
certainly is of a greater Extent than 
Sculpture, and has an Infiniter Lati- 
tude to delight us withaL 

To fee in one Piece the Beauty of 
the Heavens, the Verdant Glory, of the 
Earth, the Order and Symmetry of Pal* 
laces and Temples ■; the Softnefs, Warmth, 
Strength, and Tenderness of Naked Fi~ 
guresy the Glorious Colours of Draperies 
and Dreffis of all kinds, the Liveliness 
of Animals -, and above all, the Expreffi- 
on of our Paffions, Cujloms, Manners,, 



The Preface. 

Kites, Ceremonies, Sacred and Vrophane : 
All this, I fay, upon a piece of por- 
tative C/0f/;,eafily carried, and as ea- 
fily placed, is a Charm ; which no 
other Art can equal. And from this 
Idsea of the Art, we may naturally 
derive a Confequence of the Admira- 
tion and Efteem due by us to the Ar- 
tift ; he who at the fame time is both 
Fainter, Poet, Hifiorian, Architect, Anato- 
mift, Mathematician, and Naturalijt ; he 
Records the Truth, Adorns the Fable, 

Pleafes the Fancy, Recreates the Eye, 
Touches the Soul $ and in a word, en- 
tertains you with Silent Inftrutlions, 
which are neither guilty of Flattery, 
nor Satyr ; and which you may ei- 
ther give over, or repeat with new 
Delight as often as you pleafe. 
If thefe Qualities do not fufficient- 


the Preface. 
ly recommend the Owner of them 
to our EfteemJ know not what can ,• 
and yet by a ftrange fatality we. name 
the word fainter, without refle&ing 
upon his Art, and moft dif-ingeni- 
oufly, feem to place him among the 
Mecbanicks, who has the bed Title to 
all the Literal Arts. 

Antiquity did not fo ; and whoever 
{hall read the Tenth Chapter of the 
Thirty-fifth Book of Pliny ; which is 
nothing elfe but an Encomium of this 
Art and its Artifts, will find, that 
Great Princes, and the moft Digni- 
nified Magiftrates, thought Painters 
fit to be their Companions. Alexander 
was as often found to be in ApeUes\ 
Vainting-Koom, as in his Valine e $ and to 
Oblige him, parted with the Beauti- 
fulleft of all his Miftrejfes, becaufe he 


The Preface. 
faw fhc had Wounded Apelless Heart : 
Demetrius chofe rather to Raife the 
Siege of Rhodes, than to mine a Piece 
of Protogenes's, which was painted up- 
on the place where he could have 
beft Annoyed the, Town ; and while his 
Camp was before it, would often go to 
fee Protogenes at Work, in a little Com- 
trey-Houfe he had within the Precin6fc 
of the Camp : And to ihow the Breed- 
ing and Wit of the Painter, as well as 
the Politenefs of the Prince, I cannot 
omit the Anfwer Protogenes gave De- 
metrius, when he asked how lie durft 
continue to Work with fo much 
Tranquility in the midft of the noife 
q{ Arms, and the Diforders of a Camp ? 
He Civilly replyed, Thatibe knew De- 
metrius bad War with the Rhodians, 
but be was fur e he bad none with the Liberal 
Arts. But 

The Preface, 

But to come nearer our own 
Times ; Francis the Fir ft, was fo in Love 
with Fainter s, that he got Italian Fain- 
ters at any Rates, and obtained of An- 
drea del Sarto, and Lionardo da Vinci, to 
Honour his Court with their Frefence 
and Works $ as he did the latter, with 
vifiting him when he lay a dying, 
and fuffering him to expire in his 
Arms. Charks the Fifth was fc fond 
of Titian, that he gave his very Cour- 
tiers feme Jeaktifie about him ,• but he 
Cured them of it, by telling them, 
That the Moments he gave to Titian, were 
to be well managed, becaufe he was not fare 
to have his Company always ; whereas he was 
fare of theirs, who were more the Attendants 
of his Fortune, than of his Perfon.When 
he fent him any Frefent, which he did 
often and nobly, he always accom pa- 
fa nied 

The Preface. 
nied it with this Compliment, That his 
Vefign xm not to pay him for his Work, 
Jicb could have no Trice : Which agrees 
very well with what Pliny fays of the 
Princes and Great Men of Antiquity, 
that they did not pay ?WMS by Summs, 
but by Heaps of Gold and Silver. In 
nummo Aureo menfura accepit, non numero ; 
fays Win] of Affiles : Ridtlfi in the 
Life of Titian, reports, That one day 
the fame Emperour fitting for his 
hclure, it happened, that Titian let fall 
one of his Pencils \ which the Empe- 
rour prefently took up, and gave 
him again; which putting the Pain- 
ter to the bluth, and obliging him to 
make Excufes for the trouble the 
Prince had taken 4 he was anlwered 
by him, That Titian deferved to be Ser- 
ved by Ccefar. Raphael del Urbin was fo 
7 Ac- 

The Preface, 
Acceptable to Pope Lea the Tenth, 
who was a moft Magnificent, Accomplt- 
Jhed Prince, that he not only made him 
of his Bed-Cbamkr, that he might have 
his Company the oftner ; but like- 
wife had refolved to Create him Car- 
dinal at his next Promotion ; not think- 
ing the Sacred Purple it felf a Reward 
above the Merits of Raphael's Pencil : 
But the Death of Raphael prevented 
fo Glorious an Acknowledgment of 
his Deferts. 

Rdens, in our days, after having 
been in Favour with moft of the 
Great Princes in Chriftendom, was 
at laft chofen by the Infant Alien, and 
the Infanta Ifaklla, to be their Ambaf- 
fador at London ; where his Talent for 
the Great Affairs of State was no lefs 
admired than his Pencil, which has fo 
b 2 richly 

The Preface. 

richly Adorned the Ceiling of one of 
the beft Rooms in Europe, I mean, the 
Banquetting-Houfe. And indeed, he 
could never have fallen into a Court 
that was more difpofed to acknow- 
ledge his Skill, than Ours was at that 
Time ! King Charles the Firffc, of Sa- 
cred Memory, was not only the grea.- 
teft Favourer, but the trueft Knower 
of all thofe Arts -, and by his Coun- 
tenance, the whole Court gave them- 
felves to thofe Refined Pleafures ; 
there being hardly a Man of Great 
Quality, that had not a Collection, either 
of Pictures or Antiques : Artifts flowed 
in upon us from all parts : And had 
not the Bloody-Principled Zealots, who 
are Enemies to all the Innocent Plea* 
fures of Life, under the pretext of a 
Reformed SanSity, deftroyed both the 


the Preface. 

Beft of Kings, and the Nobleft of 
Courts, we might to this day have 
leen thefe Arts flourilh amongft us ; 
and particularly ,this ofPainting,which 
was the Darling of that Vertuous Mo- 
narch: He had once Enrich' d our Ifland 
with the nobleft Colle&ion that any 
Prince out of Italy could boaft of : 
but thofe Barbarous Rebels, whofe 
Gharrel was as much to Politenefs and 
the Liberal Arts, as to Monarchy and 
Prelacy, diffipated and deftroyed the 
beft part of it. 

But with our late Bleffed Monarch,, 
King Charles the Second, all Arts ieem- 
ed to return from their Exile t and 
to his Sacred Memory we owe what- 
ever Incouragement they have re- 
ceived fince ^ and it may be reckon- 
ed among his Felicities and ours, 


The Preface. 
which were not few, that he did £o ; 
for by that means we have him, as it 
were, yet Living among us, by that 
noble Statue of his, made by the beft 
of Modern Sculptors now living, I mean 
Mr. Grialin Gibbons. 

I have often wondred a confidering 
how much all Arts and Sciences are 
Improved in thefe Nortbern'P&Yts, and 
particularly with us, that we have 
never produced an Hifiorical Fainter, 
Native of our own Soyh we have had 
a rare Arcbiteffwho was Inigo Jones : the 
Banguetting-Houfexhe Portico of St. Pauls 
Church, and the Pia^a of Covent-Garden, 
are three Pieces of his Doing, which 
in their kind are hardly to be match- 
ed in Europe : We have likewife a 
Sculptor, who, if he goes on as he has 
begun, will be a Northern Michael An- 

gelo : 

The Preface. 
gelo : But for a Painter, we never had 
as yet, any of Note, that was an E»- 
glifb Man, that pretended to Hiftory- 
P aiming. I cannot attribute this to 
any thing but the little Incourage- 
ment it meets with in this Nation ,• 
whofe Genim more particularly leads 
them to affed Pace-Painting ; and in 
that part we have had fome who have 
proved moft Excellent Artifls ; as, 
Mr. Oliver, and Mr. Cooper, the moft 
Correfit in Miniature ; and in Oyl, Dob~ 
[on and Walker : And even at this time, 
Mr. Riley, who undoubtedly defer ves 
his Character of the rlril and beft 
Painter for Portraits in our Age. But 
our Nobility and Gentry, except fome 
few, who have eminently fhowecl 
their Kindnefs for this noble Art* 
they are generally fpeaking, no 


The Preface. 

Judges, and therefore can be no Pro- 
moters of an Art that lies all in nice 

To Remedy this therefore, I have 
undertaken this Work ; which I have 
fo compofed, as it may be read with 
Delight by any who are but Conver- 
fant with Books or Pictures \ The D*- 
fign is, to make Painting Familiar and 
Eafie to the Nobility and Gentry of this 
Nation, and to enter them fo far in 
the Knowledge and Acquaintance of the 
Italian Painters, that they may con* 
verfe with their Works, and under- 
ftand their different Characters. This 
I have done in three Familiar Dialogues^ 
in which I never make ufe of a hard 
Term of Art, but I firfl explain it : and 
that nothing might be wanting to 
make it eafie, I have alfo placed at 


The Preface. 

the end of the Book an Alphabeti- 
cal Explanation of all the hard Words 
ufed in the lives of thofe Painters' 
that are here Sub-joyned. 

The Lives are all taken out of Vafa* 
ri \ and for the Choice of them, I fol- 
lowed the Courfe of the Arts Improve- 
ment, beginning with Cimalue, and 
going on with all thofe who were, as 
it were, the Inventers and Perfecters of 
it by degrees, till I came to the Age 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo. I de- 
figna Second Part $ which, befides 
fome more refined Qbfervations up- 
on the Art it felf, will contain the 
hives of all the Modern Painter? of any 
Note, from the Time of the Car aches 
to our Days, and an Account of its 
prefent State all Europe over. After 
this, I hope our People of Quality will 

c be 

The Preface. 
be fufficiently inflamed with the Love 
of an An which Rewards its Admirers 
with the greateft Pleafures imagina- 
ble, Pleafures fo Innocent and Irre- 
proachable, that the fevered Morals 
cannot forbid the Enjoyment of them ; 
Pleafures fo Solid and Abounding, 
that they are new every time they 
are repeated • and in a word, Plea- 
fures that may be made Ufefal even to 
the Covetous i for Pictures well bought, 
are Money put out to life. 

I might here have a great Scope to 
Inveigh againft thofe other Pleafures in 
which this Nation places their greateft 
Felicity ; whil'ft under the fpecious 
names of Society and Hofpitality, we 
Countenance the moll Profufe Gluttony 
and Exorbitant Drunkenness that the Sun 
Ihes : I might tell Gentlemen, That the 


The Preface. 

Lofs of Time, the Ruine of their Fortunes, 
the Definition of 'their Health, the Va- 
rious- Tragical Accidents that attend Men 
who once a day loofe their Reafon, are 
all things worthy their ferious Refte- 
ftion % and from which, the hove of the 
Politer Arts would reclaim them. But 
I fhall leave that The am to our Divines, 
and only fadly lay with the Poet ; 

Padet hac Opprobia Nobis. 

Audici potuijfe, & non pomp refelli. 
I cannot forbear adding to this 
little Reproof, an Oifervationthatlhave 
made abroad ; which is, That of all 
the Civilised Nations in Europe, weave 
the only that want Curio fitj/ for Artifis ; 
the Dutch in themidftof their Boggs 
and ill Mr, have their Houfes full of 
Pittures, from the Highefl to the Lowe ft ; 
the Germans are alfo Curious in their 

C 2 Cot* 

"The Preface. 

Collections ; the French have as good as 
can be had for Money ] and that Art 
ieems now to take Sanftuary there * 
and fhall we, while we have a Prince 
who has declared himfelf an Enemy 
to all our Exceffes, and a Patron of all 
Vertuom Undertakings, be the only Peo- 
ple that fhall follow Grofs Delights] I 
hope better of us $ and that the Charm 
of thefe Arts once well Comprehended, 
will, like Mofess Rod, eat up all the 
other, though never fo well Counter- 
fted to be like Pleasures ; while they 
are, indeed, but fo many Pains and 


The CONTENTS of this 

f^Irfi Dialogue, Explaining the Art 
of Painting. 
Second Dialogue, Relating the Hiflorj 

of it, both Antient and Modern. 
Third Dialogue, How to know Good 

The LIVE S are Tbefe. 



Lionardo da Vinci 

Andrea del Sarto. 

Raphael D'Urbin. 


Michael Angelo. 

Giulio Romano. 

Perinodel Vaga. 


Donato, a Sculptor* An 

&tt Catenation 

o F 

Some Terms, of the ART of 


IS properly taken for the hook of a Fi- 
gare, and is ufed in this Manner, The 
Air of the Heads of 'Young Women, or 
Grave Men, &c. 

This wrd Comprehends all the Works of 
Painting, Sculpture, and Archite- 
cture that have ken made in the Time of 
the Antient Greeks and Romans, from 
Alexander the Great, to the Emperour 
Phocas j under whom the Goths Ravaged 
Italy.- Aptitude. 

It come from the Italian word Attitu- 
dine, and means the po flare and action that 
any Figare is reprefented in. 



It is taken for a Defign made of many 
Sheets of Paper pafted together -, in which 
the whole Story to he fainted in Frefco, k 
all drawn exatllj,as itmuflbe upon the Wall 
in Colours : Great Painters never paint- 
ing in Frefco> but thy make Cartoons/r/?. 

"Tis one of the parts of Painting, by 
which the Objetls to be painted receive their 
Complexion, together with their True 
Lights and Shadows* 


It u taken in Wo Senfes : fir ft, Tainting 
in Chiaro-Scuro, is meant, when there are 
only two Colours employed. Secondly, It 
it taken for the difpopng of the Lights and 
Shadows Skilfully i as when we fay, A 
Painter under fands well the Chiaro- 
Scuro. Contour. 

The Contours of a Body, are the Lines 


that environ it, and make the Superficies 
€ $ Defign* 

Has two Significations : Firft, As a part 
of Painting, it [tgnifies the jaft Meafures, 
Proportions, and Outward Forms 
that a Body, imitated from Nature, ought 
to havu Secondly> It fignifies the whole 
Compofition of a piece of Painting ; 
as when we fay, There is great Deiign 
in fuch a Piece. 


A fort of Tainting that imply s the Co- 
lours mingled with Gumm* And the dif- 
ference between that and Miniature, ii, 
than the one only ufes the Point of the Pen- 
cil, the other gives the Pencil its whole Li- 
berty. Drapery. 

Is a General Word for all forts ofCloz- 
thing, with which Figures are Adorn- 
ed : So we fay, Such a Painter difpofes 
well the Foldings of his Drapery. 



Though this word be very General, and may 
be taken for any painted Objett \ yet it u 
in Painting, generally taken for Humane 
Figures. Frefco. 

A fort of Painting, where the Colours 

are applyed upon frejh Mortar, that they 

may Incorporate mtb the Lime and Sand. 


Is an Ornament of? lowers, employed in 

Borders and Decorations. 

Is properly the Tainting that is found un- 
der Ground in the Ruines 0/ Rome ; but it 
fignifes more commonly a fort of Tainting that 
express odd Figures */ Animals, Birds, 
Flowers, Leaves, or fuchlike, mingled to- 
gether in one Ornament or Border. 
Is a Knot of Figures together, either in 
the middle or fides of apiece 0/ Painting. 

d So 

So Carache would not? allow above three 
Gruppos, nor above twelve Figures for 
any Piece. 

Hiftory-Painting is an Ajfembling of 
many "Figures in one Piece, to Keprefent any 
Action of Life, whether True or Fabulous, 
accompanied with all its Ornaments of Land- 
skip and Perfpe&ive. 

We call Manner the Habit of a Painter, 
not only of his Hand, but of his Mind ; that is, 
his way of expr effing him f elf in the three prin- 
cipal Parts of Painting, Del ign, Colou- 
ring, and Invention -, it anfwers to Stile 
in Authors ,- for a, Painter is known by his 
Manner, as an Author by his Stile, or, a 
Mans Hand- by his Writing. 

Is any Ob j eel that a Painter works by, either 
affer Nature \ or otherwife $ but mofi common* 

ly itfignifies that which Sculptors, Pain- 
ters, and Archite&s make to Govern them* 
felves by in their Defign. 

Signifies properly any Naked Figure of Man 
or Woman •, fat moft commonly of Woman ; as 
when we fay, 'tis a Nudity> we mean the 
Figure of a Naked Woman. 
If the Impreffion of a Graven or Wooden 
Plate upon Paper or Silk, Keprefenting fome 
Piece that it has been Graved after; 
Is properly any EmbojfedSculpture thaf 
rifes from a flat Superficies. It is f aid like- 
wife ^/Painting, that it has a great Relie- 
vo, when it is ftrong, and that the Figures 
appear round, and as it were, out of the Piece. 
Mezzo-Relievo. ' 
Is where the Figures rife, but not above 
half of them is feen, the reft being fuppofcd in 
the Marble or Wood. Bafio 


Is, when the Figures are little more than 
Defigned, and do rife but very little above 
the Plain : Such are the Figures of the An- 
tients about their Cups and other Veffels. 

Is, when a Figure feems of greater quantity 
than really it is } as, if it feems to be three 
foot long, when it is but one : Some call it 


•If Figures of all forts > made in a kind of 
Flaifter, and employed to Adorn a Koovi, ei* 
ther under the Cornifhes, or round the Cei- 
ling, or in Compartimeats, or Divi/t- 
ons. Schizzo. 

Is thefirft Defigti or Attempt of a Painter U 
Exprefs hU Thoughts upon any Subjeffi. The Schiz- 
Zos are ordinarily reduced into Cartoons in Frefco 
Painting,or Copyed and Enlarged in Oyl-Painting. 


Is, when a thing Is done only with one Colour, and 
that generally Black. 





Between a Traveller and his Friend. 

TH E extream delight you take 
in Pictures, is a Pleafure you 
have acquired abroad, for I remem- 
ber before you travelled, all Pi&ures 
were alike to you, and you ufed to 
laugh at the diftindion that fome of 
your Friends did ufe to make of the 
Pieces of this and the other Mafter r 

A fay- 

faying, it was nothing but Humor 
in them. 


What you fay is very true, and when I re* 
flee! upon it J cannot but blujh at my own Igno*- 
ranee, or rather willful. Stupidity, that depri- 
ved me of one of the mo ft Refined Yleafures: 
of Life, a Vleafure as Lafting as Life it felf,, 
full of hnocency and Variety, and fo Enter- 
taining, that, alone, it often fupplies the place 
of Company and Books -> and when enjoyed in 
the company of others, it improves by being 

jbared, and grow es greater by the number of 
its Enjoy ers? every one making fome Ob ferva- 
tion, according to his Genius and Inclination^ , 
which flill Illuftrates the whole, 
I niuft confefs I envy you this 
Pleafure extreamly, for living, as we 
do, in a Country where the feverity 


of our Climate obliges us to be 
much within Doors: Such a Plea- 
lure as this ought to be Cherifhed, 
by all thofe who do not place their 
Felicity, as too many of us do, in a 
Glafs of Claret : And I own, I would 
willingly be of your Society, but 
that there goes fuch a deal of know- 
ledg to judg of a good Pifture, that 
I difpair of ever being qualified that 
way, being naturally not much gi- 
ven to take pains for any Pleafure. 
Tow are very much mistaken, every one na- 
turally is fo far judg of Painting, as to 
obferve fomething in a Piffure, that is like 
to fomevohat they have obferved in Nature, 
and that alone is capable of giving them de- 
light, if the thing be well reprefented ± but 
thofe indeed who joyn to that Delight, the 

A 2 parti- 

particular knowledg of the manner how the 
fainter has mannaged his Lines, his Co~ 
lours, his Lights and Shades , and how 
he has difpofed his Figures, and with what 
Invention he has adorned his Story. They in- 
deed, have more fleafure, as having in all 
this a greater [cop for their Obfervations ; 
and yet this, though infinitely hard for the 
fainter to Execute, is but moderately diffi- 
cult for the Spectator to judg of it, requi- 
ring only a Superficial Knowledg of the fir fl 
Vrincipks of the Art; and a conftant Ob- 
fervation of the Iviarmers- of the Different 
Artijis, which is acquired by viewing their 
Works often, and Converfing much amongft 

That Superficial Knowledg of the 
Principles which you fpeak of, is 
wrapt up in fucha company of hard 


Words, and crabed Terms of Art, 
that a Man muft have a Dictionary 
to underftand them, and a good 
Memory to retain them, or elfe he 
will be at a lofs; 


If he undertake this Task with Order 
and Method, it will prove extream eafie ; 
for by following each part of fainting in its 
proper Divifion, he will come to the know- 
ledg of the Terms of the Art infenfiblj. 

Pray in the firft place, give me a^ 
Definition of the Art of Paintings 
that I may at once fee what is aimed 
at by it, and performed. 

The Art of fainting* is the Art of Ke- 
prefenting any Object by Lines drawn upm 
a flat Superficies, which Lines are after— 


wards covered with Colours, and thofe Co- 
lours allied with a certain jufl diftribution 
of Lights and Shades, with a regard to the 
Rules of Symetry and Verfpeftive ; the 
whole producing a Likenefs, or true Idaea of 
the Subject intended. 


This feems to embrace a great 
deal ; for the words Symetry and 
Perfpe&ive , imply a knowledg in 
Proportions and Diftances, and that 
fuppofes Geometry, in fome mea- 
fure, and Opticks, all which require 
much Time to Study them, and fo 
I am ftill involved in perplexities of 


It is true, that thofe Words feem to re- 
quire fome Knowledg of thofe Arts in the 
fainter, but much lefs in the Spectator ; for 


me may eafily guefs ,. whether Symetry k 
obfervedy if > for Example > in a Humane Body, 
me fee nothmg out of Proportion ; as if an 
Arm or a Leg be not too long or Jhort for 
its Pofture, or if the ¥ oft tire its f elf be fuch 
at Nature allows of: And for Perfpec~live y 
we have only to obferve whether the Ob feels 
reprefented to be at a diftance, do leffen in- 
the Pifture, as they would do naturally to the 
Eye, at fuch and fuch diftances ; thus you 
fee the fe are but fmallJ}iffculties. 

Pray, would you not allow him to 
be a Painter, who fhould only Draw 
the Obje£fcs he intended to reprefent 
in Black and White , or with bare 
Lines upon Paper. 


Yes without doubt, if what he did were r 
well Depgned, for that is the Ground-work' 



of all Fainting, and perhaps the moft diffi- 
cult thing in it. 

What is it you call Defign? 

Defign is the Expreffing with a Pen, or 
Pencil, or other InfirumehU the Likenefs of 
any Objeft by its out Lines, or Csnters $ and 
he that Under (lands and Mannage swell tbefe 
firft Lines, working after Nature ftill, and 
uling extream Diligence, and skill may with 
Practice and Judgment, arrive to an Excel- 
lency in the Art. 

Me thinks that fhould be no diffi- 
cult Matter, for we fee many whofe 
Inclination carys them to Draw any 
thing they fee, and they perform it 

with eafe. 



I grant you, Inclination goes a great way 
in diffwfing the Hand, bat a ftrong Imagi- 
nation only, will not carry a Fainter through • 
For when he compares his Work to Nature, 
he will foonfind, that great Judgment is re* 
qui fit e, as well as a Lively Fancy ; and par* 
tic ularly when he comes to place many Ob~ 
jeffs together in one Piece or Story, which 
are all to have a jufi relation to one another. 
There he will find that not only the habit of 
the Hand but the ftrength of the Mind is re~ 
quifite ; therefore all the Eminent Painters 
that ever were, fpent more time in Defigning 
after the Life, and after the Statues of the 
Antients, then ever they did in learning how 
to colour their Works -, that fo they might be 
Mafters of Defign, and be able to place rea- 
dily every Object in its true fit uation<> 




Now you talk of Nature and Sta- 
tjues, I have heard Painters hlam'd 
for working after both. 


Jf is, very true, and juftly ; but lefs for 
working after Nature than otherwife. Cara- 
vaggio a famous Painter is Ham d for having 
mcerly imitated Nature as he found her, with- 
out any correction of Farm- -A^/Perugin, 
another Painter is Ham d for having wrought 
fo much after Statues, that his Works ne- 
ver had that lively, eafmefs which accompanies 
Nature ; and of this fault Raphael his 
Scholar was a long time guilty ', till Iw Ke- 
fornid it by imitating Nature^ 


How is, it poffible to erre in imita- 
ting Nature ? 

.. ... £j. . ... ...... 



Though Nature be the Rule> fit Art 
has the Priviledge ofYerfeBing it ,• for yon 
rnujl know that there are few Objects made 
naturally fo entirely Beautiful as they might 
be, no one Man or Woman pojfejfes all the 
Advantages of Feature > Proportion 
and Colour due to each Sfyicv. Therefore 
the Aritients, when they had any Great Work 
to do, upon which they tw/i Value themfehes 
didufe to take fever al of the Beautifulleft: 
Obje£ts they defigned to Paint, and out of 
each of them, Draw what was m&fi Per- 
fe£b to make up One exquifite Figure ; 
Thus Zeuxis being imployed by the Inhabi- 
tant? of Crotonz* a City of Calabria, to 
make for their Temple of Juno, a Female 
Figure, Naked ; He de fired the Liberty 
ef feeing their Hanfomeft Virgins, out 
of whom he chofe Five, from whofe fever al 
B 2 Excel- 


Excellencies k framd a mo ft Perfed 
Figure >.toA in Features, Shape and 
Colouring, calling it Helena. At laft in 
the time of Alexander the Great, all the 
Artifts, both Painters and Sculptors, met 
and confulered how to give fach Infallible 
Rules to their Art, as no Artiiijhould be 
able to depart from them without Erring ; and 
to that end having examined all the Beau- 
ties of- Nature, and how each Part of a 
Humane Body ought to be, to make one ac- 
compliihed Modeler Pofterity to Go- 
vern the-mfelves by : A Statue was made ac~ 
cording to thofe Rules by Polycletus#/^- 
mous Sculptor of that Age ; and it proved 
fo admirable in all its Farts, that it was cal- 
led, The Rule, and all thofe that wrought 
afterwards, imitated as near as they could the 
Proportions of that Figure, and the* 
Graces of it, as believing it was impofiibk 
for. Art. to go beyond it, . Friend, 


Pray for which SeXpe was this Fi- 
gure made ? 

Tradition has not told m that, but r tis 
very probable that the thing having fo well 
fuc ceeded for one, was done for both, and car~ 
ryed on for Children too, for we fee' the 
An tients admirable in them all ; witnefs ths 
Venus of Medicis at Rome , and the 
Hercules Aventinus. 
Then you would have a Fainter 
ftudy thefe Figures of the Antients 
to ufe himfelf to thofe Proportions and 
Graces which are there Exprefled, but 
how can that be here with us where 
there are few fuch or none at all ? 
I - confefs the -want of ttent. is [ a great hi n* 



deranceto our Painters, i#£ we have fo ma-> 
ny Prints and Cafts, the Beft things of that 
■kind, and thofe fo well done, that they may in a 
great me afar e fupply the want of the Origi- 
nals i and this added to theftudyof Nature 
it f elf, mil be a fuffcient Help to any one. 

Would, you have a Painter ftudy 
nothing but Humane Figures ? 

That being the moft difficult in bis Art, 
he muft cheifly Study it : But becaufe no Sto- 
ry can be well Keprefented without Cir cum- 
fiances , therefore he muft Learn to Be- 
fign every thing* as Trees, Houfes, Water, 
Clothes, Animals, and in Jhort , all that 
falls under the notion of Vifible Objeffs ; fo 
that by that, you may guefs how much Time 
he muft fpend in this one part of Painting, 
to acquire that Keadinefs, Boldnefs, and 



Strength, to his Dejigns; that mufi be, at 
it were, the Ground-work of all he does. 

I have heard much of a difficulty, 
in Defigning, called , Shortning , for 
which I have feen Painters much ad- 
mired by thofe who pretend to un- 
derftand Painting: Pray what is 
Shortning ? 

the Shortning of a Figure, is the making- 
it appear of more Quantity, than really it is • 
the Figure having neither the Length nor 
Depth that it fiows, but by the help of the 
Lights and Shades, and judicious mannagmg 
of the Out-lines, it appears what it is tot. ; " 
and this is .much ufed in Fainting, of Ccel- - 
ings and Roofs, where the ■•Figures, bcina 
above the Eye, mufi be mo ft oflhem Short 
ned, to appear- in their natural .Situation, . 


And it is a thing, upon which 'great Painters 
have Valued ' themfelves, as fuppofmg a great 
Knowledg of the Muffles and Bones of the 
Humane Body, and a great Skill in- Defign- 
ing. Michael Angelo, amongfl the Mo- 
dem Painters, is the greateft Mafter in that 


When a Painter has acquired any 
Excellency in Defenging, readily and 
ftrongly ; What has he to do next ? 
That is not half his Work, for then he 
muft begin to mannage his Colours, it king 
particularly by them, that he is to exprefs 
the greatnefs of his Art. 'Tis they that 
give, as it were, Life and Soul to all that 
he does $ without them, his Lines will be but 
Lines that are flat, and without a Body, but 
the addition of Colours makes that appear 



found; and m it were out of the Tiff/ire, 
which elfe would he -plain and dull. 'T/j 'they 
that muft 'deceive the Eye, to the degree, to 
make Fleftj appear warm and [oft, and to 
give an Air of Life, fo as his Piclure may 
feem almofi to Breath and Move. 

Did ever &ny Painter arrive to 
that Perfe&ion you mention ? 

Tes, fever al, both of 'the Antient and Mo. 
tern Painters. Zeuxis Painted Grapes, 
fo that the *Birds flew at them to eat them. 
Apelles drew Horfes to fwch a likenefs, 
that upon fetting them before live -Horfes, the 
Live ones Neighed , and began to kick at 
them, as being of their own kind. And a- 
mongft the Modern Painters, Hannibal 
Carache, relates of himfelf, That going to 
fee Baflano at Venice, he went to take a 

C Book 


Book of a Shelf, and found it to he the 
Picture of one, fo lively done, that he who 
was a Great Painter, was deceived by it, 
The Flefh of Raphael's Yi&UYcmfoNa- 
tural, tbatttfeems to be Alive. And fo do 
Titians Pictures, who was the Greatefl 
Mafter/k Colouring that ever was, ha- 
ving attained to imitate. Humane Bodies 
ill all the foftnefs of Flefh, and beauty of 
Skin and Complexion. 

Wherein particularly lies the Art 
Q,f Colouring ? 


he fide _ the Mixture of Colours, fuch , 
as may anfwer the Painter's Aim, it lies 
in a certain Contention, as I may call it, 
between the Light and the. Shades, which , 
by the means of Colours, are brought to 
Unite with each other $ and fo to give that 


Roundnefs to the Figures , which the 
Italians call Relievo, and for which wr 
have no other Name : In this, if the Sha- 
dows are too ftrong, the Piece is barjh and 
hard, if too weak, and there be too much 
Light, 'tis flat. I, for my part , Jbmld 
like a Colouring rather fomet hi ng Brown, 
but clear, than a bright gay one : But par- 
ticularly, I think, that thofe fine Coral 
Lips, and Cherry Cheeks, are to be 
Banifhed, as being far from Flelh and 
Blood. Yis true, the Skins, or Com- 
plexions muflvary, according to the Age 
and Sex of the Perfbn : An Old Wo- 
man requiring another Colouring than a 
frejh Young one. But the Painter mujl 
particularly take Care, that there be nothing 
harfb to offend the Eye, as that neither the 
Contours, or Out-Lines, be too flrongly 
Terminated, nor the Shadows too hard, 

C 2 nor 


nor ///^Colours placed, by one another at \ 

dfc not agree. 


Is there any Rule for that? 

Some Obfervations there are, as thofe 
Figures which are placed on the foremoft 
Ground, or next the Eye, ought to have 
the greatefi Strength, both- in their Lights 
^////..Shadows, and Cloathed with a live- 
ly Drapery ; Obfervingr, that as they leffen 
by di fiance, and are behind, to give both the 
Flefh and the Drapery more faint and ob* 
[cure Colouring. And this is called an 
Union in Painting,-, which makes up an- 
Harmony to the^ Eye , and caufes the 
Whole to appear .one, and not two or three. 




Then you think, the chiefeft dif- 
ficulty of Colouring, confifts in the. 
Imitation of Humane Flefh, and gi- 
ving the Tints or Complexions to each 


There is a thing which the Italians calk 
Morbidezza -, The meaning of which word, 
is to Exprefs the Soft nefs, and tender Live" 
line ft of Flefh and Blood, fo as the. Eye 
may almoft invite the Hand to touch and feel 
it, as if it were Alive ■; and this is th& 
hardefl: thing to Compafs in the whole Art 
of Painting. And 'tis in this particular^ 
that Titian,. Corregio, and amongfl : th 
more Modern, Rubeiis, .and . Vandike,. 
d& Excel.. 




I have heard, that in fome Figures 
of Raphael > the very Glofs of Da- 
mask, and the Softnefs of Velvet, 
with the Luftre of Gold, are fo Ex- 
prefled, that you would take them 
to be Real, and not Painted: Is not 
that as hard to do, as to imitate 
Flejb ? 


No : Becaufe thofe things are but thejlill 
Life, whereas there is a Spirit in Flefh 
and Blood, which is hard to Reprefent. 
But a good Painter mufi know how to do 
thofe Things you, mention* and many more : 
As for Example, He mujl know how to Imi- 
tate the Darknefs of Night, the Bright- 
neffof Day, the Shining and Glittering of 
Armour,- the Greennefs of Trees, the 
Drynefi of Rocks. In a word, All Fruits, 



Flowers , Animals , Buildings , fo as 

that they all appear Natural and Fleafing to 
the Eye. And he muft not think asfome do> 
that the force of Colouring confifts in 
imploying of fine Colours , as fine lacks 
Ultra Marine Greens, SSc. For thefe 
indeed, are fine before they are wrought, but 
the PainterV Skill is to work them judici- 
oufly, and with convenience to his Sub feci*. 
Friend \ , 

I have heard Painters blamed for 
Finifhing their Pieces too much : . 
How can that be? 


Very well: For an over Diligence in that: 
kind, may come to make the Picture look too 
like a Ficture, and loofe the freedom .^Na- 
ture. And it- was in this, that Proto- 
genes, who was, it may be, > 
Apelles, in every part of Fainting ^ he~- 




fides, was nevertheless Outdone by bin, be- 
c/iufe Protogenes could hardly ever give 
over Finifbing a Piece. Whereas Apelles 
hew, when he had wrought fo much as would 
anfwer the Eye of the Spe6tator> and 
preferve the Natural. This the Italians 
call, Working A la pittoresk, that is 
Boldly, and according to the firfi Inch at ion 
of a Fainter s Genius. But this requires 
a prejudgment, orelfe it will appear 
to the j udicious, meer Dawbing. 

I hear, you Travellers talk of Paint- 
ing in Trefco, in Diftemper, in Oyl, 
in Chiaro Scuro : pray, What is the 
meaning of all thole Words ? 

Tou muft know, that the Italians have a 
Way of Painting their Pallaces, both within 
and without, upon the bear Walls ; md be- 


fore Oyl Painting came up, moft Mafiers 
wrought that Way ; and it is the moft Ma- 
fterly of all the ways of Painting, becaufe 
it is done upon a Wall newly Flaiftered, and 
you mufl Plaifter no more, than what you can 
do in a Day ,• the Colours king to Incorpo- 
rate with the Mortar , and dry with it, 
and it cannot be Touched over again, as all 
other Ways of Painting may : This is that 
they call Painting in Frefco. 


This mult require a very Dexte- 
rous and quick Hand. 

Yes, and a good Judgment too ; for the 
Colours willfhow otherwife when they are 
Dry, than they did when they were Wet : 
Therefore there is great Praftice required 
in Mannaging them , but then this Way 
makes amends for its Difficulties $ for the 

D longer 


longer it ft ands, it acquires ftill more Beau- 
ty and Union, it refifting both Wind and 

. Friend, 

Pray what is Tainting in Diftemper ? 

fainting in Diftemper, is when either 
the Wall or Board you Taint upon, is pre- 
pared with a certain Pafte or Blaifter, and 
then as you Work, you temper your Colours 
///// with a liquor made of the Yolk of an 
Egg, beaten with the Milk of a Figg 
Sprout, well ground together. This u a 
way of Tainting, ufed by Antient Matters 
very much -, and it is a very lafting Way, 
there being yet things of Ghiotto'j" doing 
upon Boards* that have lafied upwards of 
Two Hundred Tears, and are ftill frefb and 
Beautiful. But fine e Oyl Painting came 
in, moft have given over the way of Working 


in Diftemper. Tour Colours in this 
way are all Minerals, whereas in Working 
in Frefco, they mufi be all Earths. 
What is Oyl Painting ? 
The Secret of Oyl Painting, confifts 
in ufing Colours that are Ground with 
Oyl of Nut, tfrLinfeed, and with thefe 
you paint upon a Cloth, which has firjl been 
primed with drying Colours, fuch as Ce- 
rus, Red Oaker, and Ombre, mingled 
together. This manner of painting, makes 
the Colours Jhow more Lively than any 
other, and feems to give your Ficlure more 
Vivacity and Softnef. 

Can you Paint in Oyl upon a 

D 2 Traveller, 


Tes> you may upon a dry Wall, having 


over wi 

firft Evened it ; and wafbed it 

Boy led Oyls, as long as it will drink any 


and when it is dry, prime it as you 

do a 

Cloth. There is another Way of doing it 
too, by applying a Pafte or Plaifter of a par- 
ticular Compofition, all over the Wall, then 
Wajhing it over 



Maftick, and 

Linfeed Oyl, then 

Mixture of Pitch, 

Varniih, hoyled together, 

and apply ed with a great BruJIj, till it make 
a, Couch, fitto receive your priming, and af- 
terwards your Colours. Vaffarr gives 
the Receipt of a particular Compofiti- 
on, which he ufed in the Great Dukes Pa* 
lace at Florence, and which is very taft* 


Friend j 

Did the Antients life Oyl Painting ? 


2 9 


It does not appear by any that have Writ 
upon that Sub] eel, that they did; And the 
Moderns were a great while, before they 
found it out. It was Difcovered by the Indu* 
fry of a Flemifh Painter, tailed, John of 
Bruges, who being Vexed at the Suns u%+ 
gluing fome Pi&ures of his made upon 
Boards , refolved to find out a Way of 
Fainting upon Cloth ; which he did Gom- 
pafs, and was much Admired for it, in 
fo much, that Antonio de. Meffina, a 
famous Fainter of his Time> came on purpofe 
into Flanders, and Lived many Years with 
John of Bruges, to ham the Secret. 
He afterwards Settled at Venice , and 
there Taught it fever al of his Friends ; 
amongft the refi, to one Dominico Vini~ 
tiano, who coming to Florence, to Faint 
the Chappel of the Portinari, brought this 



fecret with him ; and had for chief SchoHar, 
Andrea del Caitagno. It has been the 
greatejl help to Painting imaginable. For 
before, it was hard to carry Pi£tures from 
place to place , but now being done upon 
Cloth , they may be carefully Rolled up, 
and carried all the World over* 

Pray what is painting in Ch'taro 
Scuro ? 


It is a manner of Fainting that comes 
nearer Defign than Colouring, it being 
firfi taken from the Imitation of the Sta- 
tues of Marble, or of Bronze, or other 
Stones, and it is much ufed upon the Out' 
fide, and Fronts of Great Houfes and Fa- 
laces, in Stories which feem to be of Marble* 
or Porphire, or, any other 'Stone tie 'Fain- 
ter thinks fit to Imitate. 


This Way of Painting , which feldom 
employs above two Colours, may he done in 
Frefco upon a Wall , which is the kfi 
Way j or upon Cloth, and then it is mofl 
commonly employed for Defigns of Tri- 
umphal Arches, and in Decorations 
of the Stage for Plays, and other fuch 
Entertainments Vaflary, gives the fecret of 
doing it either Way. 

I find that by little and littlej fhall 
penetrate into the fecret of this Art,if 
fometimes you will be as kind as you 
have been now ; for what you have 
Taught me already, is fo clear, and 
eafie, that I think I (hall hardly for- 
get it; but I believe the Hardeft is 
yet to come. But before I engage any 
deeper in this MyfteryJ would glad- 
ly be Informed of the Hiftory of faint- 

ing, that is, of its Rife, Progrefs, 
Perfection, and Decay, both among 
the Antient Greeks and Romans., and 
amongft us Moderns. 


If you, pleafe, it ft) all he the Subje£t of 
our next Meeting ,• and I do ajfureyou, it 
will be very Inftruclive, and. Diverting, and 
difpofe you very much to the Under/land- 
ing the mofl refined Secrets of the Art, as 
well as the Beauty of the fever al Pieces of 
the kfi Artifts. 


Pray let it be fo, for I do exped 
great Variety, in a Narration, which 
muft run through fo many Ages, and 
Difcourfe of fo many Admirable 




Of the ART of 




I Am come to Summon you of 
your Promife ; and you may fee 
by my Impatience, that you have al- 
ready made me a Lover of the Art. 


J am glad to fee it ; for it is no fmall Plea- 
fire to think, that we are capable of pro- 
curing Vie afar e to others, as I am fare I 

E flail 


Jball do to yon, when I have made yon tbo~ 
rowly capable of underftandingtfa Beauty 
of an Art that has been the Admiration of 
Antiquity, and is ftill the great eft Charm 
of the mo ft polite part of Mankind. 


Rray who do you mean by that 
glorious Epitbete. 

Traveller j 

Ir mean chiefly the Italians, to whom none 
cm deny the Vrjviledge of having been . the 
Civiliiers of Europe, fince. Painting, 
Sculpture , Arehite&ure, Mufick^ 
Gardening, .polite Converfation, and 
prudent Behayiour arenas I may call it; 
all of the Growth , of their Cpuntrey ; and! 
mean, .be fides, alljhofe in France, Spain > . 
Germany, LowrCountreys, and Eng- 

l|^SL to 1] ^^^£%^^r4^^^ Arts, and. 



endeavour to promote them in their own Na- 


I confefs, they are all ravifhing 
Entertainments, and infinitely to be 
preferr'd before our other fenfual 
Delights, which deftroy our Health* 
and dull our Minds ; and I hope 
they are travelling apace this way. 
But now pray fatisfie my Curiofity 
about this Art of Painting, and let me 
know its whole Hiftory. 

To do that, Ijboidd begin with Adant, 
andfo fearch down all along throughly in An> 
tiquity ; but for want of Guides in fuch a 
Journey, I mufl fet forth at fome more 
known Stage, and that I think mufi be 
Graece ; though there is great reafon to fuf- 
feS that the ^Egyptians had the Art long 

E 2 before 


before them, as they had mo ft other Arts and 
Sciences fence : Moft of the great Philo- 
sophers of Gr&ce travelled to ^Egypt 
for their Learning, witnefs Thales, Py- 
thagoras, Democritus, Plato, and many 
others ; and it u likely that the Artifts 
might do the fame : bat however the place 
where Painting fir ft fettled, was Corinth, 
or Sicyone -, there being fome Difpute about 
thofe two Towns* becaufe there happened to be 
Eminent Mafters at them both much about the 
fame time, to wit, Cleanthes at Coring 
and Telephanes at Sicyone -, but the 
Art in both the fe places was but in its Infancy ; 
thofe Painters contenting t hem f elves with 
drawing the out lines of one Colour, and 
jhadd owing them within : Some time after,. 
Clcophantus of Corinth Invented Vari- 
ety of Colouring ± and that fame Mafier 
came into Italy with Demaratus, the Fa- 

ther 0/Tarquinius Prifcus, King of the 

Did P 'aintifig get fo early into Italy? 

Tis a Difpnte, whether it were not there fir (I ; 
for there was a Temple in Ardea, a City 
near Rome, on which were Paintings, 
which were yet to he feen in the Time of the. 
Emperonr Vefpatian -, which Tradition 
affirm d to be Antienter than the Foundation 
of Rome 'j and by confeqnence, of an older 
Date than the Time of Tar quinius Prif- 
cus, or his Father ; and yet thefe Paintings 
were fo ffejb and lively, that they feemed ta 
have been Fainted but the other day. 

Bat to return to the Greeks ; it is pro* 
bable, that Painting remained with them a 
great while in its Infancy, (nice th firfi 
Painter of any Note, was above three hun- 


dred Tears after the Foundation of 
Rome, and that was Polygrotus ^/Ta- 
fus>wbofirft begun to draw Draperies in 
the Women s Pictures, and to drefs their 
Heads in different Fajhions ; he was like- 
wife the fir (I that ventured upon Hiftorical 
Pieces, having Painted the Temple at Del- 
phos, and the great Portico at Athens ; 
which from the Variety of Pictures in it, was 
called, the Various. Both thefe Pieces he 
did Gratis ; which gaind him the hove of 
all Greece to that degree, that in a Publick 
Ajfembly of the Amphicfcions, it was de- 
creed, that where ever he Travelled all over 
Graece, his Charges fbould be born by the 

About thirty Tears after him came Apol- 
lodorus the Athenian, who was Admira- 
ble for the Beauty and Strength of his Fi- 
gures ; he was the Mafler of Zeuxis, who 


carried Painting to its highejl Perfetliony 
and acquired to bimfclf great Riches, though 
be never fold any of bis Pieces, but gave them, 
all for nothing, faying, That if they were to be 
duly valued, whole Kingdoms and Provinces 
could not pay for them. He was be fides fa 
Magnificent in his Humour, that being at the 
Olympian Games, which was the noblefl 
Affembly of all Graece ,♦ he wore his Name in 
Gold Letters upon his Cloak, that all might 
take notice of him. He drew many Pieces \ 
but his chief was An Athlete, or Champion 
of the Olympick Games ; with which he- 
was fo fat is fed, that he wrote under it thefe'. 
words -, 

It may be Envyed, 

But not Imitated. 

His Concurrents in the Art were never tbg 
lefs great Mafiers -, amongfi themmve t Ti^ 



mantes and Parrhafius ; and with this /aft 
' Zeuxis had many Co nt efts, in one of which he 
owned him f elf overdone ; for having agreed 
each of them to draw fomething for Matte- 
ry, Zeuxis drew Grapes fo rarely 
\done, that the Birds flew and peck' t at them ; 
and thereupon he bidding Parrhafius flow 
his Viece ; was by him prefented with a ¥i- 
■ clure, with a Curtain before it ; which Zeu- 
xis going haftily to draw, found that it was 
nothing but a tainted One, fo well done, that 
it had deceivdhim. 

. Parrhafius out did him likewife in Va- 
nity, and boafting of his own Abilities, pre' 
tending amongft other things, to be defcended 
from Apollo, and to have Converfation with 
the Gods -, faying, that the Hercules he 
drew at Lindus, was the fame that u-sd to 
appear to him in his Breams ; he was never- 
thelefs overcome publickly ^nTimantes at 



Samos, to his great Affliction ; his particu- 
lar CharaBer was, Well Finifhing his 

Timantes, on the contrary, was of a [met, 
modeft Temper, and was Admirable in the 
Expreffion of Paffions ; as appear d by his 
Famous Pifture of the Sacrifice of Iphi- 
genia -, where he drew fo many different 
forts of Sorrow upon the Faces of the 
Spectators* according to the Concerns 
they had in that Tragical Piece <?/ Reli- 
gion, that being at lafl come to Keprefent 
Airamemnon's Pace, who was Father to 
the Virgin, he found himfelf Exhaufted, and 
not able to reach the Excefs of Grief that na- 
turally mufi have been Jl owed in his Count e- 
nance upon that Oecafion ; and therefore he 
covered his Pace with apart of his Garment ; 
faving thereby the Honour of his Art, and yet 
giving fome Idea of the greatnefs of the Pa- 

F thers 


thers Sorrow. His particular Talent lay, 
in giving more to under fland by his Piffures, 
than was really exprefsd in them ; as he 
/hewed in the YiBure of a Polyphemus 
afleep, in little ; where to Intimate his Gi- 
gantick Proportion, he feigned fome Sa- 
tyrs who were me af tiring the bignefs of his 


Were all thefe Matters Grecians ? 

No, fome of them were Afiaticks ; whence 
it came that Painting was divided into, 
two Schools, the Afiatick and the Greek j 
and I believe they differ d as much in their 
Manners as the Roman and the Lom- 
bard Schools do at this day : But the 
Greek was likewife Subdivided into two 
Schools more, which were called the Syci- 
onian and the Attick ,* which I fuppofe, 


might differ as the Florentine and the 
Roman. Eupompus, who was Con- 
temporary to Zeuxis, was the Author 
of this la ft Subdivifion, and was a very Emi- 
nent Painter ; his Chief Schollar was 
Pamphilus the Macedonian, the fir (I of 
that Nation who apply ed himfelf to the Li- 
beral Arts ', having ftudied Geometry, 
without which, he ufed to fay, no Painter 
could Excell : He drew the Vi&ory of 
the Athenians at Phliante, and fever al 
other Excellent Pieces* He was likewife 
the fir ft that taught his Art for a Set Price ; 
which was, a Talent in Ten Tears for every 
one of his Schollars. 


How much was a Talent ? 

There were Talents of fever al Coun- 
trys, and fever al Values -, but Authors, 

F 2 when 


when they mention Talents, do mean the 
Attick Talent ; and that, according to the 
left Calculation, was 190 I, Englifh ; 

which in Ten tears, was not quite twenty 
Vound a Tear. But this Cuftom which he 
brought up, was of great Improvement to 
Painting ; for after his Example, many 
Mafters Set Up, to Teach Xoung Gentle- 
men to Defign, 


Did the Gentry and Nobility Learn 
to Defign ? 


The Art it f elf was of that high Value 
among the Grecians* that they thought it 
an Imployment fit for none but Ingenious 
Minds and free. Spirits ; and to that end, 
Slaves and Inferkair Perfons were for- 
bidbythe-iLvNS to apply themfelves to it ; 
infomuch, that it has been obfervd, that in the 


whole Courfe of thefe Arts of Painting and 
Statuary, never any Slave was known to 
Praclife them. But to return to our Hiflo- 
ry : Pamphilus was the Mafter of the 
Famous Apelles, who furpafsd all that ever 
went before him, and was outdone by none that 
came after him ; he flourifljd about the hun- 
dred and twelfth Olympiad ; which an- 
fwers pritty well to the three hundred and 
twenty firft Tear of the Foundation of 
Rome ; he Painted more, as well as bet- 
ter than all his Contemporaries ,♦ and 
wrote alfo divers Volumes about the Se~ 
crets of the Art ^ which were of exceeding 
Advantage to Poflerity : His particular 
Talent lay in. hidden. Graces, and in a 
certain taking pleaimgnefs, which refill- 
ed from the Whole ; valuing him f elf par tic u^ 
larly, upon knowing when to give over 
working upon a Picture. 



Protogenes was hh Contemporary, 
and chief Concurrent in the Art ; he 
livd in the Ifland of Rhodes ; and the 
Fame of his Works was fuck, that it drew 
Apelles from Home, to go and fee the Au- 
thor of them. 

Their fir ft Interview was Remarkable, and 
pafl in this manner : Apelles being Landed 
at Rhodes, went firaight to Protogenes 
his Shop, or Painting-Room ,- where, finding 
none but an Old Woman, and a Board 
newly 'Print d, and Prepared for Painting, he, 
without faying any thing, drew a Line of Ad- 
mirable Finenefs of one Colour, and fo went 
his way : Protogenes being come Home, the 
Old Woman Jhewed him the Line ; which 
he guefsd to be Apelles his Work ; and 
taking his Pencil, drew another over that, 
finer than Apelles s, and of another Co- 
lour ; telling the Old Woman, that if 


the Man came back that drew the firft 
Line, fhe fiould tell him, that he that drew 
the fecond, was the Man he looked for. In a 
little time Apelles came, and feeing what 
Protogenes had done, toqk the Pencil a- 
gain, and with a Stroke of a third Colour, 
divided thofe two Lines fo Subtlety, that they 
were perfectly difiinguijhable, and fo went his 
way. Protogenes coming Home a Unit 
after, and feeing what he had done, confefs'd 
himfelfVanquiJVti and prefently ran to find 
out Apelles, whom he brought to his own 
Houfe. This very Piece, with thefe three 
Lines, and nothing elfe in it, was afterwards 
carried to Rome, and long Preferred 
among the Rarities of the Imperial 

This was a true Meeting of two 
great Artifis, where Skill and hgeni- 


oufnefs were equally Eminent, and 
not Envy and III Manners, as our Ar- 
tijls fhovv one another. 

They were both oftbem well Bred, and us 'd 
to the Company ofFerfons of the be ft Quali- 
ty : Apelles particularly, had his Houfe al- 
ways full oftbem : Alexander the Great 
going often to fee him Work, and not difdain- 
ing to enter into Difcourfe with him. This 
Great Prince was fo fond of his Works, and 
fo perfwaded of their Immortality, that he 
PubliJVt an Edi£t, forbidding any other 
Painter to attempt the Drawing of his 
Pi£ture^ as being defirom that the Idea of 
his Verfon jho&ld be tranfmitted to Pofterity 
by the moft Skilful Hand of his Age : How 
much he lovd Apelles, may beguefsd by the 
Noblenefs of the Vrefent he made him ; for 
having, by Alexander's Command, drawn 



the Naked Picture ^/Campafpe, one of 
the mofi Beautiful Women of her Time, 
and Miftrifs to that Great Prince, could 
not defend his Heart againft fuch Charms, 
hut fell defperately in Love with her ; which 
Alexander perceiving, very Generoujly pre* 
fented him with the Lady, thinking a Piclure 
of his Hand to be a fufficient Exchange for fo 
great a Beauty : And 'tis to be pre fumed, 
that Apelles himfelfwas of no ordinary Me- 
rit, fince the Lady went willingly to his Bed, 
and livd with him all his Life in great Fe- 
licity. Tis thought, that a famous Piece 
of his, calld, the Venus Diona^a, was the 
Picture of that Lady. 

I obferve, great Painters have gene- 
rally, either Hand fome Wives, or 
Beautiful MiftrifTes, and they are 

G * for 


for the moft part,extreamly fenfible 

to Beauty. 


How can they be otherwife ? being fucb 
Judges as they are, 0/ Feature and Pro- 
portion ; and having be fides, fo ftrong an 
Imagination, as they muft have, to excel/ 
in their Art. And Apelles did fo ftrong- 
ly take the Idea of thofe. be Tainted, that 
Phyfonomifts and Fortune-Tellers 
have often Praclifed their Art upon bis Pi- 
ctures with Succefs, foretelling whatjbould 
befall the Per funs for whom they were made ; 
and to add to the Excellency of his Art, he 
bad a Varnifh, the Secret of which dyed 
with him, by which, he not only made his Co- 
lours appear more lively, but alfo prefervd 
bis Pieces from all Injuries of Time. 



What were his molt Famous 
Works ? 


'Tis bard to fay ; but if we may Judge ly 
^Judgment 0/ Auguftus Csefar, we 
muft give the Pri%e to that Famous Venus 
coming out of the Sea ; which he Conse- 
crated in the Temple of his Father Ju- 
lius ; and which, frm her ABion, was caltd 
by the Greeks, Anadiomene, and was 
extreamly Celebrated by their Poets ; 
a part of it being fpoil'd by Time, there was 
no Painter found that would offer to mend 
it j fo great was the Skill of Apelles, and 
the Veneration that all Artifts had for bis 

G 2 



Was there many of them prefer- 
ved to the Time of the Romans ? 
A great many -, and for ought we know, 
might have lafted to our days, if they could 
have efcaped the Barbarity ofthofe Nations 
that Ruined the Roman Empire -, for 
there were at Rome of his doing, Caftor 
and Pollux, and the Yicture of Alexan- 
der, Triumphing with the Image of War, 
tyed by the Hands to his Chariot : and 
thefe were Confecrated in the Forum of 
Auguftus. He had made many Figures 
^/Alexander, and other Great Men, which 
were all preferred and valued at a vaft Rate 
by the Greeks and Romans. 
Was there any thing left ofProto- 
genes' '$ doing ? 




Very little, except at Athens, where fa 
painted the Propyleum, or Antiporch 
of the Temple 0/ Minerva : but his mofl 
famous Piece was his Jalyffus, which was 
Confecrated in the Temple of Peace 
in Rome : 'tis faid, he [pent Seven Tears 
about it, and Coloured it over four times, 
that it might the better refifi the Injuries of 

What was Reprefented in this 
Pifture ? 


There has been great Difpute about that 
in Antiquity, and fine e -, fome being of Opini- 
on, that therein was .Reprefented the City of 
Jalyflus, with its Territory belonging to 
the Rhodians : But that feems improbable* 
becaufe that Cicero always compares the 

Jalyflus of Protogenes with the Venus 
pf Apelles ,• which would be very improper; 
if it were only a Town : 'tis therefore more 
probable, that it was tbelHftare of the Her 9 
Jalyffus, Founder of the Town, and who 
was faidto ie Son to Apollo. What fewer 
it was, the fiece was fo Admired, that it 
Savd the City of Rhodes, when it was 
Befieg'd by Demetrius, who could have 
Carried it, if he would have Fired a part 
of the Town where this Pi£ture was ; but 
he chofe rather to Raife the Siege, than to 
dejlroyfo fine a thing : Some fay, that Pro- 
togenes was yet alive, and working in his 
Gountrey-Houfe in the Suburbs of 
Rhodes, which were allVoffefi by the Army 
of Demetrius ,• who hearing that he work d 
on quietly, fent to him to know the reafon of 
fo much Security amidft fo much Danger : 
Protogenes made Anfwer, That he 


knew his War was with the Rhodians, 
and not with the Arts : Which Anfwer 
fo pkafed Demetrius, that he gave him a 
Guard, and went often, daring the Siege, 
to fee him work. And thus you fee, Art can 
protect its own Sons in the midfi of the 
greateft Dangers. 


I think, I have read fomewhere, 
that Yrotogenes was a great while be- 
fore his Pi&ures were underftood 
by his Countrymen, infomuch that 
he was very Poor, and his Works 
Sold for little or nothing. 

'75 very true, and he ms beholding to tfa 
Generofity ofApelhsforhis Fortune ^ 
for he feeing how little he was valued at 
Home, bought up a good many ofhh Pieces $ 



giving out, he intended to fell them again for 
his own, and gave him a great Fricefor them ; 
which the Rhodians hearing, intreatedhim 
to let them have them ; which he did, bat made 
them fay well for them. 

The fe four, Zeuxis, Parrhafius, Apel- 
les, and Protogenes, were the four Fa- 
mo as Painters fl/Gnece, which has made 
me the more particular in fpeaking of their 
Works y they having carried the Art to the 
high eft pitch it was poffible to arrive to. 

Then after their Time it Decayed, 
and grew every day leis Famous. 

It remained in great Perfection for fe- 
ver al Centuries ithefe great Maflers hav- 
ing made fo many go.od Schollars, .and left 
fuch Admirable- Precepts for the Art, that 


it was impoffible it could be loft for a great 
while ; nay, feme Improvements were 
made by Succeeding Matters in the Art of 
Colouring* and making their Pictures of 
a greater Relievo than thofe Antient Ma- 
tters did. But it will not he amifs, to name 
you fuccintlly fome of the great Matters 
that were, as it were, of the School of thefe 
Antients $ as likewife, to mention fome of 
their Works. 

Firft, then Paufias 0/Sicione, was a 
Schollar 0/ Pamphilus, as well as Apel- 
les, and fe ems to have been the fir ft that be- 
gan to Paint Walls and Ceilings -, for 
Apelles never Painted upon a Wall, but 
upon a Board, or fome portable Matter, that 
his Works might be lefs fubjetl to Fire, and 
other Injuries of Time *• There were like- 
wife fever al good Pieces of this Matter pre- 
ferved at Rome ; Lucullus gave two 

H Ta- 


Talents for a Piece of his, of a Young 
Woman making a Garland 0/ Flowers ; 
and there was likewife in Pompey's The- 
atre a Piece of his, of a Sacrifice of Ox- 
en> much efteemed. This Town of Sicione 
Furnijhed Rome with its greateft Rari- 
ties j for the Common Town-Houfe 
king ran in Debt, Pawned their Pi£tures ^ 
which were all, or moft of them carried ta 
Rome by Scaurus the Edile, to Adorn 
the Magnificent Entertainment he made for 
the People in the Forum Romanum, dur- 
ing his Magiftracy. 

Euphranor of Corinth was another 
Famous Mailer, who lived about the f our 
hundred and tenth Tear of the Foundati- 
on of Rome 5 he gave a great Majefty 
to his Figures, and was admirable in his 
Proportions ; there was a Piece of his in 
the Temple of Ephefus, Reprefenting the 


Counterfeit Folly of Ulyffus, in which he 
was looking a Horfe and an Ox toge- 

About the fame time was Cyelias, whofe 

Fame was fuch, that long after his Death, 
a Piece of his, containing the Story of the 
Argonantes, was bought by Hortenfius, 
the Famous Roman Orator, Contempo- 
rary with Cicero $ and he paid forty four 
Talents for it ; which is about eight 
thoufand pound Sterling : He built a 
Chappel on purpofe for this Pi&ure in his 
Villa at Tufculum. 

Out ^/Euphranor's School came Ni- 
cias, who painted Women fo rarely ; 
Rome was full of his Works, brought from 
Graece : his mofi Famous Piece was Ho- 
mer's Hell ; which he painted with fuch 
great Attention, that he would often ask his 
Servants, during that Labour, whether 

H 2 he 


he had Dm d, or no ? He was offered 
[event] Talents by King Ptolomeus, 
which is above ten thousand pounds, for this 
Viece ; but he chofe rather to Honour his own 
Countrey with it, and prefented it freely to 
the Town of Corinth. It feems, he was al- 
fo an Admirable Statuary ; for Praxite- 
les being asked, which of all his Statues he 
valued the moft ? made anfwer, thofe which 
Nieias finijhea I for him : fo great a value he 
had for his Skill ^Judgment. 

Not long after, there flourijhed in 
Athens one Metrodorus, a rare Philo- 
fopher, and moft excellent Painter ; after 
that Paul us Emilius had Conquered Vox- 
feus King of Macedon ; being f# Athens, 
he de fired the Athenians to give him fome 
one^ of their moft Learned Men to Breed up 
bis Son- ; and they by one Accord named Me- 


trodorus for that Employment -, with whom 
Paulus Emilius was Infinitely Satis* 


All this while, thefe are all Greek 
Maimers ; had the Romans none of 
their own ? 


Yes, and very famous Ones ; witnefs that 
Fabius, who was Sir named Pi£tor, of one 
of the greateft Families in Rome -, he 
fainted the Templum Salutis in Rome : 
they had likewife Paunius, who was loth Po~ 
et and Fainter, and painted the Temple of 
Hercules in the Forum Boarium. Tur- 
pilius, a Roman Knight, painted many 
things at Verona ; and that which was very 
fingular, and never pracJifed but by himfeJf, 



was, that he painted with his Left Hand. 
Atterius Labeo, who had been Pretor, 
was famous for, his Works in this kind. But 
to fay the truth, the Romans being a War- 
like Nation, were mofi taken up that way, and 
the great Men amongji them contented them- 
felves with being able to Judge of Arts, and 
to incourage them by their Riches, which they 
profufely layed out in Pieces of Painting and 
Statuary: Thus Julius Csefar Confecrated 
in the Temple of Venus, from whom his 
Family was derivd, two Pieces, one an 
Ajax, another a Medsea j both Admirable 
Figures . Auguftus did the fame ; and 
in Imitation of him, all the Great Men 
pur chafed the Works of the Greek Painters 
and Statuaries at any Rate $ infomuch that 
Grcecia and Afia were almofi deprived of 
all the befi Originals, which were brought 
to Rome, and there preferved, till fever al 



Accidents of Tire, and the Invafion 0/Rome 
by the Barbarous Nations, confumed them • 
infomuch that novo there are but a few Pieces 
of antient painting left. But I hope we 
need not much regret that lofs, when wejha/l 
reflect upon the Admirable Works of our Mo- 
dern Painters, who have arrivd to that 
perfection in the Art, which perhaps would 
aflonijl thofe Antient Artills themfelves, 
if they could revive and fee them. 

Before you undertake to tell me 
the progrefs of the Art in thefe Mo- 
dern Times, pray inform me how 
long it lay buryed in Oblivion ? 


From the decay of the Roman Empire, and 
the Invafion of the Goths, & other Bar bar ow- 
Nations, it continued decaying, and was in a 



manner quite lofly till within the fe four hun- 
dred Tears, that it firft revived in Tuf- 


Pray, what was the great reafon of 
that Decay ? 


Be fides the Barbarity of the Times, in 
which Men were continually imployed in Wars, 
Rapines and Murders -, the Zeal likewife 
0/Chriftian Religion, did not a little 
contribute to Jlifle the Ingenuity of the befi 
Artifts ; for after a long Contefl with the 
Religion of the Gentiles, the Chrifti- 
an having prevailed at lafl, the Bifhops 
and Paftours of the Chriftian Aflem- 
blies laboured all they could to extingui/h 
the very Memory of the Heathen Gods ; 
and therefore threw down all thofe wonderful 
Statues, Sculptures, Paintings, and 


other Ornaments of their Temples ; which 
they did not out of any hatred they had to 
thofe Arts, but out of a Blind Zeal, to ex- 
tinguijh their Superftitious Worihip ; 
by which, they neverthelefs fo crafhed thofe 
Arts themfelves, that for many hundreds of 
Tears they lay buryed and neglected. 

How came they at laft to recover 
themfelves ? 


There remained in Greece fome little 
footfleps of the Art ; and from thence it was, 
that about the Tear 1250, there came fome 
Painters, who could hardly be called Ma- 
ilers, having fcarce any more knowledge of 
the Art than jufl to draw the Out-lines 
without either Grace or Proportion -, the 
fir ft Sc hollar they made in Italy, was at 
Florence, and was called Cimabue ; who 

I beinz 


being helped by Nature, foon outdid his Ma- 
kers, and began to give fome ftrength to his 
Drawings, but ftill without any great Skill, 
as not under ftandinghow %o manage 'his Lights 
and Shadows, or indeed, how to Defign 
truely; it being in thofe days an unufual 
and unat tempted thing to Draw after the 

His chief Schollar was Ghiotto, who was 
very 'Famous for his Time ; he freed Paint- 
ing from that fir ft Stiffnefs of the Greek 
Mafters, and began to give fome Air to the 
Heads, and fome Softnefs to the Colon r- 
ing, with better Aptitudes to his Figures, 
as alfo, fome Loofnefs in his Drapery - nay, 
he. attempted fomething of Shortning and 
Perfpeclive, though but imperfectly ; he like- 
wife began to jhow in his Pieces fome effects 
of the.Paffions of the Mind, fuch as Fear, 
Love, Anger, Pity, 6V. But he ftill was 


far from expr effing the Livelinefs of the Eyes, 
the foftnefs ofFleJb, and the ftrengtb of the 
Mufcles in Naked Figures, as having feen 
nothing of that kind to dire ft him, or help 
him in this firfi beginning of the Art. 

After him Thaddeo Gaddi had fome- 
thing a better Colouring, and more Liveli- 
nefs in his Figures. Simon Saneie be- 
gan to under fi and the Decorum of Com* 
pofition : WStephanoScimmian?/^ 
his Son Tomafo added fiome ftrengtb to their 
Drawings, and perfected themfelves in 
Perfpe6tive> but ftill keeping to the Man- 
ner of Ghiotto ; which was continued by 
Spinello, Ar&ino, Jacopo, Cafentino, 
Antonio, Venitiano, Andrea, Pifano, 
Nino, and feveral others, who ftill got 
ground a little, but could not fall into that 
free manner of the Imitation of Nature 

I 2 which 


which Mafaccio fir ft attained to both in 
Sculpture and Painting, having quite 
layed afide Ghiotto's way. 

How long was it from the time of 
Cimabue to the time of Mafaccio ,?. 

About two hundred Tears ; all which thus 
we may call the Infancy of Painting ; but 
Mafaccio, by great Study and Amplication, 
having found out the true way of placing his 
Figures upon a plain Superficies, with due 
Sh or tilings ; which- all the other Maflers be- 
fore him -bad not- under flood ; invented like* 
wife an eafier way of drawing the- Drape- 
ries with loofe and natural Foldings ; he, air 
fv attempted Naked Figure Si, and fucc ceded 
in them -better than any before him ; but in 
Perfpeftive he was admirable ; there being 
yet extant in Florence a Piece of his, where 



there are Houfes drawn in Perfpeftive, 
withfo much Skill, as to flow both the Infide 
and Out fide of them. 

In bis Time Sculpture was come to a great 
Improvement, chiefly by the prodigious Ge~ 
nius of that great Architect, and Sculp- 
tor, Philippo di Ser Brunelefci m 
as alfa by his other Contemporaries , 
Donatello , Lorenzo , Ghiberti, and 
fever al others -, who having difcovered fome. 
ofthebefl Roman Antiquities, and flu- 
died them carefully, had attained to a rare 
Boldnefs in Defign, and opened the way to 
the Painters to draw with more Exaclnefs 
and Truth, as alfo, to give more Sweetnefs J 'tv 
the Naked Figures of Women and 'Chil- 
dren i fo that with the help of fever al other 
Eminent Altifts, Fainting was come, ash 
were, to its Adolefeence or Youth-, 'eve** ■ 
ry thing being extreamly mended > their In- 



tion being more Copiom and Richer in Or- 
naments i their Drawings truer & near- 
er Nature ,• their Colouring more De- 
lightful ; and in a word, the whole Manner 
of Painting king altered from what it was in 
the Time of 'Ghiotto. 


Pray, who were the great Painters 
of this Second AGE, as one may 
call it ? 


There were many, bat chiefly thefe, Pietro 
delta Francia, Lazaro Vafari, Anto- 
nello da Meflina, Andrea del Caftag- 
no, Dominico, Ghirlandaio, San- 
dro, Botticello, Francefco, Fran- 
cia, Andrea Mantegna $ and many 




Thefe. were all Florentines, as I take 
k y or at leaft, bred in the Florentine 
Schoole : Was there no other place 
in Italy that produced Artifts of the 
fame kind at that time ? 

Tes, at Venice, and all over Lombar- 
dy, there were fever al Faint ers of Repute ; 
at Venice particularly, the two Bellini 
were defervedly Famous ; and at Ferrara, 
Lorenza Colta, and. Hercole Ferra- 
refe ; but ftill Fainting kept, as it were,. in 
its Youth, alike in all places ; and mo ft of 
the Mafters then livings thought they had 
attained the Ne plus Ultra ; whereas . 
they were infinitely Jhort of that. Skill which 
thofeof ' the Third Age, or, as Lmay call it, 
the Virility or Manhood of Fainting 
did arrive to. 




Pray, what was wanting in their 
Works ; for methinks, you have 
faid already, that they were truely 
Defigned, and finely Coloured ■ that 
they underftood Invention, and Com- 
pofition ; that they were not Ignorant 
in ?erfpeclive, and the Art of Shortning 
their Figures : all which are the 
hardeft things in~P ainting. 

There wanted a Spirit and Life, which 
their Succeilors gave to their Works $ and 
particularly, an Eafinefs ; which hides the 
pains and labour that the Artifl has ken at ; 
it being with Painting as with Poetry ^ 
where, the greatefi Art, is to conceal Art ; 
that u, that the Spectator may think that 
eafie, which cofi the Fainter infinite Toy I and 


Labour ' They had not likewife, that fweet 
Union of their Colours which was after* 
wards fouud oat, and firfi attempted by 
Francia Bolognefe, and Pietro Peru- 
gino ; and fo pleafing it was to the Eye> 
that the Veople came in flocks to ft air upon 
their Works, thinking it impofpble to do bet- 
ter j but they were foon undeceived by Leo- 
nardo da Vinci ; whom we muft own as 
the Father of the Third Age of Painting, 
which we call the Modern ,• and in him no- 
thing was wanting ; for be fides ftrength of 
Defign, and true Drawing, he gave bet- 
ter Rules, more exatl Meafures, and 
was more profound in the Art than any before 

About what time did Leonardo da 
Vinci live ? And who were his Con- 
temporaries ? 

K Tra~ 



He flourijbed about two hundred Tears 
ago, and had for Contemporaries moft 
of the rare Painters that the World has pro- 
duced ; which were, Giorgione di Caftel, 
Franco, Andrea del Sarto, Raphael 
del Urbino, Antonio di Correggio, 
H. Parmigiano, Polidoro, Julio Ro- 
mano, Perino del Vaga, and Michael 
Angelo Buonaroti. 


Thefe are all famous Names, and 
known to all thofe who have ever 
heard of Painting ; therefore, I would 
fain be informed more particularly 
of their Excellences. 


The befi way for that, will he, to read 
their Lives\> done by Vafari •, but h the 



meantime, to fatisfie your Cnriofty, I will 
fay a little of every one of them. 

Giorgione was of the School of Venice, 
and the fir ft that followed the Modern Tus- 
can way; for having by chance feenfome things 
0/ Leonardo da Vinci, with that new way 
offtrong Shadows, itpleafed himfo much, that 
he followed it all his Life time, and imitated 
it prefeclly in all his Oyl Paintings : he 
drew all after the Life, and had an excellent 
Colouring ; by which means he gave a 
Spirit to all he did ^ which had not been feen 
in any Lombard Painter before him } and 
that was his particular Char abler ; he was 
as great a Mufitian as he was a Painter, 
and played admirably upon the Lute ; he 
dyed Joang, having got the Plague of his 
Miftrefs, who having it upon her, admit- 
ted of his Embraces ; of which they both 

K 2 An- 


Andrea del Sarto wrought with won- 
derful Diligence and Care, infomuch that 
his Works i are highly v allied, and his Colour-' 
ing was the fweetefi in the World, but there 
wants Strength and Spirit, which Andrea 
bad not himfelf, being of a mild timer ous Na» 
tp*e% and diftruftful of his own Capacity, as 
alfo fet ting very little Value upon what he did-; 
whieh made him- live and die Poor and Con- 
temptible 'i not having got in all' his life time 
much- Money, except when he was in France, 
in the -Service, of tiat King.- 

Raphael del Urbin was the greatefi 
Painter that ever was -, having made himfelf 
a~ Manner out of the Study oftheAntients 
and the Moderns, and taken the befi out of 
loth;-, he, was admirable for the \ eafvnefs of 
Invention, Richuefs, and Order in his 
Goixipofition, Nature herfelf .was over- 
come by his Colouring, he was Judicious be- 

yond me afar e, and proper to his Aptitudes ; 
in a word, he carried Painting in its great- 
eft Perfection, and has hen outdone by none : 
His particular Talent lay in Secret Graces, 
as ApellesV did among the Antients.- 
Antonio di Correggio, among the 
Lombards, was. an exquifite Artift ,- for 
without ever having teen out of his own Coun- 
trey, he attained to the greateft difficulties > 
of the Art 5 never did any Body handle. Co- 
lours letter, nor Paint with a greater Re- 
lievo ; but particularly, the tender Soft- 
nefs he gave his Naked 7igmes,farpaf~ 
fes all Mailers of his Time, and perhaps, all 
that evensere ; he- worked moft at Parma, , 
retird, and little taken notice of, having a . 
great Family, and working hard to main- 
tain them : Painting ows much to kirn-, and ' 
particularly, the manner of drawing Hair ■ 


loo fe and natural ; which no Painter before 

him had attained to. 

Francefco Muzzuoli, otberwife called, 
II Parmigiano, was one of the rareft a- 
mong the Lombard. Painters ; Sweet- 
nels, Neatnefs, and Grace in his Fi- 
gures, were his Char after, together with an 
art of making Landskips, and other Or- 
naments, beyond any of his Time : and if 
he had not taken a Humour of Studying 
Chymiftry, and feeking the Philofo- 
pher's Stone, he would have been, perhaps, 
the mo ft excellent Fainter of his Age. 

Polidoro, from carrying Stone and 
Mortar in the Pope's Buildings, came to 
try his Genius for Defigning ; and hav- 
ing made an Intimate Friend/hip with Ma- 
turino, a Florentine, who was then work- 
ing upon the new Lodgings in Frefco ; he 
followed his ftudy fo clofe, that they two un- 

dertook fever al Frontifpeeces, and Oat [ides 
of Pallaces in Rome ; and their Genim was 
fo conformable* that their Work feemed to pro- 
ceed from the fame Hand, though both of them 
work'd together upon the fame Piece ; their 
Invention was the richeft-, and Defign the 
eafieft that it was poffible to fee ; and to this 
day, they are the be ft School for Painters , 
they having contributed to the Art as much 
as any ; they painted mo ft of the be ft Roman 
Stories up and down Rome ; but did them 
all with that great Judgment, that to thofe 
who are converfant with the Cuftomes and 
Drefs of that Nation, all feemed mighty 
proper and e a fie. 

Julio Romano, was Raphael's Schol- 
lar, and his Beloved Schollar, none having fa 
well Imitated him either in Manner, In- 
vention, Defign, or Colouring ,• and 



he was be fides, pie af ant in his Converfation, of 
a jovial, merry Humour , and infinitely flitting 
with the fweetnefs 0/ Raphaels Temper , no 
Body imderflood Antiquity better, for he 
had extreamly ftudied TrajanV Pillar, 
where all the Roman Habits, Engines 
of War, Eniigns, Arms, &c* are rarely 
well Keprefented •' He was be fides, an admi- 
rable Medallift, and [pent much Money and 
Time in that Study : his chief Works are at 
Mantua ; where he livd the befi part of 
his Life, and dyed Rich, and in great Favour 
with the Duke of that Place. 

Perino del Vaga came to Rome in 
Raphael^ Time, and grew excellent by flu- 
dying his and Michael AngeloV Works ; 
he was a bold and ftrong Defigner, having 
imderflood the Mufcles in Naked Bo- 
dies as well as any of his time j he had a par- 
ticular Talent for Grottesk ; of which 



kind thefe are many Pieces of bis in Rome ,* 
but bis chief Works are at Genova in the 
Pallace 0/ Principe Doria ; be was a very 
univerfal Painter both in Frefco>Oyl and 
Diftemper, and fir [I taught the true work- 
ing 0/Grottesks and Stucco Work. 

Michael Angelo Buonaroti was the 
greateft Defigner that ever was, having 
ftudied Naked Bodies with great Care ; but 
he aiming always at /bowing the mofi difficult 
things of the Art, in the Contorfions of Mem- 
bers, and Convulfions of the Mufcles, Contra* 
Hions of the Nerves, &c. His Painting is 
not fo agreeable, though much more profound 
and difficult than any other -, his Manner was 
Fierce, and almofi Savage, having nothing of 
the Graces of Raphael, whofe Naked Fi- 
gures are dilicate and tender, and more like 
Flefh and Blood, whereas Michael An- 
gelo doth not dijlinguifb the Sexes nor the 

L Ages 


Ages fo well, but makes all alike Mufculom 
and Strong ; and who fees one Naked Figure 
of bis doing, may reckon he has feen them all > 
his Colouring is nothing near fo Natural 
as Raphael's * and in a word, for all Vat- 
fari commends him above the Skies, he was a 
better Sculptor than a Painter : One may 
fay 0/ Raphael and of him, that their Cba~ 
rafters were oppofite, and both great De- 
figners ; the one endeavouring tofbow the 
Difficulties of the Art, and the other aiming 
at Eajinefs ; in which, perhaps, there is as 
much Difficulty. 


You have touched very handfom- 
ly upon the Characters of all thefe 
great Artifts, and have thereby rai- 
led a defire in me to read their Lives. 
But pray Inform, me yet a little fur- 

8 3 
ther : Did Painting after their Time 
decay ? Or, has it fince been Impro- 
ved by more Modern Painters ? For 
all thofe whom you have menti- 
oned, lived almoft two hundred 
Years ago. 


I cannot fay, it has Decayed, bat it has 
rather Improved , till within thefe few 
Tears, that it fe ems to be at afiand; and I 
fear, mufl Decay, both for want of Encou- 
ragement, and becatife all things that have 
attained their titmojl Period, do generally 
decline, after they have been at a ftand for 
forne time. 


Pray, who were thofe that Suc- 
ceeded Kkphaeland Michael Angelo, and 
thofe other great Painters which you 
have mentioned. 

L 2 Traveller. 



After the Death of Raphael and his 
Schollars ( for, as for Michael Angelo 
he made no School ) Painting feemed to 
k Decaying; and for fome Tears, there was 
hardly a Mafter of any Repute all oven Ita- 
ly. The two h ft at Rome ntfn?Jofeph 
Arpino and Michael Angelo da Ca- 
ravaggio, but both guilty of great. Mi ft ah s 
in their Art : the fir ft followed purely his 
Fancy, or rather Humour, wbichww nei- 
ther founded upon Nature nor Art, but had 
for Ground a certain YraBical, Vantaftical 
Idea which he had framed to kimfelf The 
other was afure Naturalift, Copying Na- 
ture without diftindion or difcretion ; 
he under -flood 'little 0/ Com poll t ion or 
Decor um,k was an admirable Colourer. 
But much about the fame time, the Cara- 
ches 0/ Bologna came to Rome, and the 


8 5 

mo Brothers Tainted together the famous Gab 
lery of the Pallazzo Farneze : Hannibal 

the lounge ft, was much thegreatefi Mafter ; 
though bis Eldefi Brother Auguftin was 
likewife admiraile ; they renewed Raphael'^ 
Manner ; and Hannibal particularly, had 
an admirable Genius to make proper to him-' 
f elf any Manner he faw, as he did by Cor- 
reggio, both as to his Colouring, Ten- 
dernefs, and, Motions of the Figures ;.. in 
a, word, he was a mofi AccempliJb'd'Pa'mter, 
kthfor Defign, Invention, Composi- 
tion, Colouring, and all parts 0/ Paint- 
ing ; having a Soveraign Genius, whicbmade 
him Mafter of a great School of the bejh 
Painters Italy has had. 

Auguftin his Elder Brother was an exp- 
edient Painter, and a rare Ingraver-. 
He far furpafed Hannibal bimfelf in, 
the Accomplifbments of the Mind ; for be-? 


fides his knowledge in Mathem&ticks and 
Philofophy, he was an admirable Milfi- 
tian, and a very good Poet in his own Lan- 
guage : He Founded the Academy 0/De- 
fign in Bologna ; in which, bejides De- 
figning after the Life, there was Taught 
Simmetry, Perfpe£live, the reafon of the 
difpfing the Shadows and Lights, Ana- 
tomy and Architecture ; and Difcourfes 
were made upon Stories and Fables, and 
the Manner of V lacing them, and the Art of 
Colouring them $ infomuch that Painting 
was much Improved by him. 

He left a Natural Son, whofe Name 
was Anthony, and who dyed about twenty 
four Tears Old ; 'twas though he would have 
gone beyond Hannibal himfelf the little that 
he has left behind him being of a bolder flight 
than any of the Carraches. 



Lodovico Carrache,/fe Uncle, tm 

be that firft InftruSed Hannibal, and was 
m Imminent Painter, having ftudied the 
Manner of Correggio $ he excelled in 
Defign and Colouring, and was chiefly 
Imitated by Guido Rheni ; who, though a 
Schollar of HannibalV, yet thought the 
Sweetnefs and Colouring ofTusdovU 
CO to be preferrd to Hannibal's ; and: in- 
deed the Heads of Guido are not infer iout 
U thfc of Raphael himfelf 

Pray, who were the chief Schol- 
lars of this School of the Caraches> 

The mo ft Remarkable were Guido Rhe« 
ni, of whom I was fpeaking, Sixto Bada- • 
locchi, Albano, Dominichino^Lan* > 

Guido Rheni acquired both mouKe* • 


put at ion and Riches than any of the School of 
the Caraches, there being hardly a Prince 
in Europe that has not endeavoured to get 
fome of bis Pieces, which he fold at what Kates 
be pleafed* 

Sixto Badalocchi dyed toting, but was 
the befi Defigner of the whole School of 
the Caraches. 

Albano worked moft in Little, but with 
a great Genius, and an admirable Sweetnefs, 
having be fides, all the Parts of an Excellent 

Dominichino was one that took much 
Pains, and had not that happy Facility which 
his other Contemporaries had, but he was very 
Profound in all the Parts of Painting ; info- 
much, that bating the inimitable Graces of 
Guido, hefeemsto out-do him in every thing 
el ft > and particularly, in greatnefs of In- 



Cavaliero Lanfranc was mother of 
the famous Difciples f/Carache> and Paint- 
ed in Rome fever al things in Concurrence 
with Guido and Domenichino $ he had 
a great Fire, and a noble Manner ofDefign 
and Colouring, but not ah ays fo Correct as 
he fbould be. 

There was likewife one about the fame time, 
or a little after, who feems to have been his 
own J\dafier 9 and to have been the Head of a 
School ; and that is, 

Pietro Berettini di Cortona, who 
was a mofi Accompli /bed Painter, and a great 
Compofer, much Facility in his Inventions, 
and a particular way of Cloathmg his Fi- 
gures, were his dijli?iguifbing Characters ; 
but be fides, he was Univerfal ,- Painting all his 
Ornaments himfelf and that to a great Per- 
fection, as n^///VLatidskip as in Fruits, 
Flowers, Animals, &c. His Forms are 

M very 


very Correct, as having fludied all the An- 
tiques of Rome better than any fainter 
of his Age, there king fcarce an Old Frag- 
ment left Un-Defigned by him ± his Dra- 
pery is a little fliff, and that is his on- 
ly fault. 


Methinks, all this while, you 3 
laid nothing of fome of the niuic 
Famous Fainter s in the World, to wit., 
Titian, Tint or et, Fad Veronefe, and the 


They are all of the Lombard School, 
mid I deigned to treat of them by themfelves, 
as indeed , they deferve $ but in the mean 
time, fince you have mentioned them y I mill 
give youafhort Character of each of them. 

Titian was the befl Colourer, perhaps, 
that ever was s he Defigned likewife very 

ivell x 

well, but not very exatlly ; the Airs of his 
Heads for Women and Children are admi- 
rable, and his Drapery loofe and noble ; his 
Portraits are all Mailer-pieces, no man 
having ever carried Face-Painting fpfai± ; 
the Perfons that he has drawn having all the 
Life and Spirit as if they were alive ; his 
Landskips are the True ft, be ft Coloured, 
and Strongeft that ever were : He was 
very Laborious, Copying with his own Hand 
all that he did for ten Tears ; that he might 
thereby acquire a Facility : He lived to be a 
hundred Tears Old within one Tear, and 
tainted to the laft ; but what he did at fir ft 
and at laft, is eafily diftinguifbed from his 
other Works which he did in his Prime. 

Paul Veronefe, Difciple of Titian, 
fainted with grert Grace, and adorned his 
Figures with Beautiful Draperies, but 

M 2 his 


his Compofition was grofs, and Inven- 
tion poor 9 neither did he Defign Correctly, 
his Colouring it exquifite. 

Tintoret had a great Genius* Sifhe had 
had as much Patience as he had Fire andVu 
vacity, he would have Excelled -, but he is faul- 
ty in his Defign, and his Gompoiltion 
and Ornaments are mean, his Colouring 
// very good. 

The two BafTans had but a poor Genius., 
confined to one Manner, and with little Va- 
riety ; but their Colouring is Admirable, 
and their Animals Defigned Truely, and 
with great Relievo ; as for other Paint- 
ing, they had neither Invention nor Cor- 
rection tf/Defign* 

And with them, I think, I may Jhut up 
my Account of the Italian Painters of any 
great Fame, % 




Has there been no Painters of the 
firft Rank out of Italy ? 


Few or none, hat fome there have 
been, that had they feen Italy, would 
certainly have been of the very firfi Kate i: 
Others there are too, who having feen that" 
Countrey, have brought out of it a Manner- 
and Colouring little Infer iour to the be ft 
Mafters there ; the firft were Albert 
Durer and Holbins, who were both' 
Profound in the Art ; they were Con- 
temporaries to Raphael , and would 
have pulled him if they had: lived at 
Rome, to Jhake of their Gothick Mm- 
nex. > Raphael had Albert. Durer imi 


great Admiration, and ufed to hang his 
Prints in his Chamber, and (lady them : 
Amongfl thofe who have been in ITA- 
L Y, the two beft are Rubens and Van- 

Rubens had a great Genius, much 
Fire, and yet great Softnefs ; be was 
Learned in the Art, tut without Cor- 
rection in Defign ; his Colouring is 
equal to Titian's, whofe Works he chief- 
ly Study ed, and like him, followed Nature 
more than the Antique ; he has more Fa- 
cility than Titian, more Truth and 
Profoundneis than Paul Veronefe , 
and more Majefty and Repofe than 
Tintoret : His Chief Study was upon 
thefe three ; out of whom be made 
himfelf a Manner beyond them all $ and 



ftich an one as has not hen out-done by 

The kft of bis Sc ho liars was Vandike ; 
who feems to have befl under flood his Ma- 
tters Rules and General Maxims ; 
?iay, he has even far pa^ed him in the Dilicd- 
cy of Expr effing true Flefh and Blood ; 
particularly , in fome fmall Cabinet 
Pieces : Had he not fpent fo much time in 
Portraits, he might have been a great 
Hiftory Painter $ though he did not De- 




great Correction. 

DI A- 



Ofthe ART of 



How to know Good Figures. 


I Have read with great pleafure 
the Lives of mod of thofe Pain- 
ters whom we difcourfed of at our 
laft Meeting ; and that Study has 
given me fo muuh Infight into the 
Art, that I muft needs own, that a 

N Ge- 

5 8 

General Painter, fuch as Raphael and 
fome others were, is a molt extraor- 
dinary fort of Man ; it being necef- 
fary he Ihould not only have a Ge- 
nius and Spirit infufed from above, 
but alfo> that he be fraught with all 
the beft part of acquired Know- 
ledg here below - y and I do no lon- 
ger wonder now, that we have fo few 
of fuch Tranfcendent Artifts. 
The World here in our Northern Cli- 
mates has a Notion of Painters little no- 
bler than 0/Joyners and Carpenters, or 
any other Mechanick, thinking that their 
Art is nothing ht the daubing a few Co- 
lours upon a Cloth, and believing that no- 
thing more ought to be expeffed from them at 
beft, but the making a like figure of any Bor 
dys Face. 



Which the mo ft Ingenious among ft them per- 
ceiving, flop there -, and though their Geni- 
us would lead them further into the noble 
pat t of Hiftory Pain ting, they check it, as 
ufelefs to their Fortune, fmce they Jhodd 
have no Judges of their Abilities, nor any 
proportionable Reward of their Under* 
takings. So that till the Gentry of this Na- 
tion are better Judges of the Art, 'tis im- 
poffible we fbould ever have an Historical 
Painter of our om, nor that any excellent 
Forreigner Jhould ft ay among ft us, 


What you fay is very true, and 
therefore I think it would be a good 
work to inform us how we fhould 
Judge of Paintings, and diftinguifh 
the Good from the Bad ; as alfo, to 
teach us how to know the different 

N 2 Hands 


Hands and Manners of thofe great 
Matters already extant. 

To do that perfectly, would be a Work of 
great length, and perhaps, ingage me in the 
Secrets of the Art it felf, tofuch a degree, 
04 my Difcourfe would be fit for none but 
Painters to read > therefore I Jhall not do 
that i but if a few Rules of Common Senfe 
and Obviom Notions will fujfice, as I believe 
they will, to make any one a Judge ^/Paint- 
ing, I am content to give yon that fort of 


Pray do, and in as eafie Terms as 
you can, that I may Communicate 
what I Learn, to thofe whom I de- 
fign to gain over to this diverting 



I muft then repeat to you what I 
told yon at our firft Meeting ; which 
is, That the Art of Painting has three 
Parts ; which are, Defign, Colouring, 
and Invention -, and under this third, is 
that which we call Difpolition $ which is 
properly the Order in which all the Farts of 
the Story are difpofed, Jo as to produce one 
effeS according to the Defign of the Painter ,• 
and that is the firft ^ffeU which a good 
Piece ofHiftory is to produce in the Specta- 
tor ; that is, if it be a Picture of a joyful 
Event, that all that is in it be Gay and 
Smiling, to the very Landskips, Houfes, 
Heavens, Cloaths, &c. And that all . 
the Aptitudes tend to Mirth. The fame, 
if the Story be Sad, or Solemn ; and fo 
for the reft* And a Piece that does not do 
this at firft fights is moft certainly faulty, 


though it be never fo well Defigned, or ne- 
ver fo well Coloured \ nay, though there be 
Learning and Invention in it ± for as a 
Play that is defigned to make me Laugh, is 
nwft, certainly an ill one if it makes me Cry. 
So an Hiflorical Piece that doth not pro- 
duce the Effecl it is defigned for, cannot pre- 
tend to an Excellency, though it be never 
fo finely Painted. 


But as one may be delighted with 
the Verles and Competition of an 
111 Play, fo we may be pleafed with 
the Defign and Colouring of a Picture 
that is ill Difpofed. 


'T/i true, but that is but an Imperfect 
Joy, and fuch an one as reflecls more upon the 
Artift, than if he had made an Attempt to 
pleafe us by Order, and had failed in his 



Defign and Colouring. Such was the 
fault of one, who being to draw the Story of 
Mofes finking the Rock in the Defert to 
get Water for the People of Ifrael, made 
a Rock indeed, and the People about it, 
but drew the Landskip of a Countrey full of 
Pafture, and Beautifully Green and 
Fertile -, not confidering that fuch Court- 
treys have no need 0/ Miracles to produce 
Water in them ± without which they cannot b 
fuppofed Fertile : whereas he JhouM have 
drawn a Countrey, as indeed it was> Burnt 
up,Sandy, and Barren, that the Miracle 
might have been both more ueceffary and great- 
er : and though this Countrey were never 
fo finely done by him, yet that Errour of 
Judgment made the Piece Int oiler able, and 
not to be looked upon without Indigna^ 


io 4 

The next thing to be confidered in an Hi- 
storical Piece, is the Truth of the Draw- 
ings, and the Correction of the Defign, as 
Painters call it , that is, whether they have 
chofen to imitate Nature in hermofi Beauti- 
ful Part i for though a Painter be the Cop- 
pift of Nature, yet he mufl not take her pro* 
mifcuoufly. as he finds her, but have an Idea 
of all that is Pine and Beautiful in an Ob- 
ject, and choofe to Keprefent that, as the 
Antients have done fo admirably in their 
Paintings and Statues : And 'tis in this 
part that moft of the Flemifh Painters, 
even Rubens himfilf have mifcarryed, by 
making an ill Choice of Nature y either be- 
caufe the Beautiful Natural is not the 
Product of their Countrey, or becaufe they 
have not feen the Antique, which is the 
Correction of Nature by Art , for we may 


I0 5 
fay that the Antique is but the be ft of Na- 
ture ; and therefore all that refembles the 
Antique, mil carry that Character along 
with it. 


I remember, you reckoned it to 
me among the Faults of fome Pain- 
ters, that they had ftudied too long 
upon the Statues of the Antients ,• 
and that they had indeed thereby 
acquired the Correction of Dejign 
you fpeak of ; but they had by 
the fame means loft that Vivacity 
and Life which is in Nature, and 
which is the true Grace of Paint- 


''Tis very true* that a Painter may fall 

into that Err our, by giving himfelf up too 

O much 

much to the Antique ,• therefore be muft 
know, that bis Profeffion is not tyed up to that 
exact Imitation of it as the SculptorV is, 
who mufl never depart from that cxa% Ke- 
gidaritj of Proportion which the Antients 
have fettled in their Statues > hut 
ters Figures mufl be fuch as may j 
ther to have been Models for the Antique, 
than dr axon from it ; and a Painter that ne- 
ver has fiudied it at all, will never arrive at 
that as Raphael, and the befi of the Lom- 
bard Painters have done -, who feem to have 
made no other life of the Antique, than by 
that means to choofe the mofl Beautiful of 

There is another Caution to be obferved too 
in this Choice of Forms, which is, to keep a 
Judicious Aptitude to the Story ; for if the 
Painter, for Example, is to draw Samp- 

fori, he muft not give him the Softnefs and 
Tender nefs he would give to Ganimedes . 
nay, there is a difference to be made in the 
very fame Figure at different times : and 
Hercules bimfelf is to be made more Ro- 
buft, fighting with Anteus, than when he 
fits in Dejanira's Lap. But above all, the 
Painter mwfi obferve an equal Air, fo as not 
to make one part Mufculous and Strong 
and the other Soft and Tender. 

There is another thing to be confidered like- 
wife upon the viewing of any Story ; which is 
whether the Painter has ufed that Variety 
which Nature herfelffets us a Pattern for, 
in net having made any one Pace exactly like 
another, nor hardly any one Shape or Make 
of either Alan or Woman. Therefore the 
Painter muft alfo vary his Heads* his Bo- 
dies, his Aptitudes, and in a word, all the 

2 Members 


Members of the Humane Body, or elfe 
his Piece will Cloy , and Satiate the 

As for the Remainder of what belongs 
properly to that part called Deiign ; we 
mtifl conpder if every Figure moves pro- 
perly ; as> if a Figure be to fir ike y whether 
the Arm and all the Body Jhow the vigour of 
fecb a Motion-, and the fame if he is to Run 
or Dance ; and therein confifts one of the 
greatefi Mafteries of the Art, and which 
requires fome Knowledge in Anatomy, 
that the Mulcles be rightly exprefs d. As 
for Shortnings, they are things of great 
Difficulty, and few under ftand the Beauty of 
them -, which is, fo to cheat the Eye, that a Fi- 
gure that in reality is not a Foot in length, 
Jhall fe em to be five or fix Foot long ; and 
this depends upon Opticks, and is moft in 
ufe in Ceilings and Vaults. 


I op 


Thefe are good Obfervations for 
Naked Figures ; but few Pieces are 
all of that fort, moft being Cloath- 
ed j and they fay, that the EiFed of 
Draperies is of great Confequence to 
the Piece, and therefore to be ma- 
naged with great Art. 


'Tis very true, 'tis one of the moft diffi- 
cult parts ^/Painting ; and the be ft Rule 
is> that your Drapery he in large Fold- 
ings, Noble and Simple, not repeated too 
often, but following the Order of the Parts ; 
and let them be ofStwSs and Silks that are 
commonly worn, of beautiful Colours, but 



fweet, and fuch as do not trench upon the Na- 
ked too barjhly, and b] that means the] will 
be of great life for the Union of the Whole j 
either by refletling the Light, or giving fuch 
a Fund as is wanting for the other Colours 
to appear better. They ferve alfo to fill up 
any empt] place in the Figure. 

There is alfo a Judicious Choice to be made 
0/ Draperies, according to the Qualit] of 
the Perfons : Magiflrates and Grave 
People mufi have Ample and Long Robes ; 
Countrey People and Souldiers mufi 
have Clofe, Short Draperies ; Young 
Maids and Women mufi have them Light, 
Thin, and Tender. The] that follow the Dra- 
pery of the Antients in Statues, will al- 
ways be Stif, as Raphael was at fir ft, be- 
caufe that the] ufed little Foldings, often re- 
peated i which do befi in Marble or Brafs. 



But Painters who have the Command of Co- 
lours, Lights, and Shadows, may ex- 
tend their Draperies, and let them fly as 
they pleafe. Titian, Paul Veronese, 
Tintoret , Rubens , and Vandike , 
have painted Drapery admirably ; and 
indeed the Lombard School have ex- 
celled in that and Colouring, as the 
Roman and Florentine in Defign and 



What is properly the Colouring 
of a Piece of Painting ? 


It is the Art of employing the Colours. 
proper to the SubjeS, with a regard to the' 
Lights and Shadows that are incident 



to the Story, either according to the Truth 
of it, or to the Painters Invention : 
and out of the Management of 
thefe comes all the Strength, Re- 
lievo, and Round nefs that the Fi- 
gures have : 'tis hard to give Pofitive Rules 
here, it depending much on Pra&ice ; but 
the moft General is, fo to manage your Co- 
lours, Lights, and Shadows, that the 
bodies enlightned may appear by the Oppo- 
fition of your Shadows j which by that 
means may make the Eye refl with Fleafure 
upon them ; and alfo, that there be an 
imperceptible parage from your Shadows 
to your Lights. 

'Tis generally obferved likewife to make the 
great eft Light fall upon the middle of the 
Piece, where the principal Figures ought to 
be, and to leffen it by degrees towards the 
fides till it loofe it f elf In gentle Sha- 


Shadows, avoid ftrong Shadowings 
upon the Naked Members, leafi the Hack 
that is in them feems to be part of the F/eJJj. 
But above ally there is a thing called by the 
Italians, II degra damento de Co- 
lon ; which in Englifh may be termed, 
The diminifhing of Colours : And it 
conjifls in making an Union and Concord be- 
tween the Colours in the formofl part of 
your Piece, and thofe that are behind, fe that 
they be all of one tenour* and not broke ; and 
by this means every part correfponds with 
another in your Picture, and makes up 
one Harmony to the Eye, 

As for Face-Painting alone, it is t§ 
be managed another way, for there you 
muft do precifely what Nature Jhows 

'Tis true, that Beautiful Colour? 
may be employed, but they muji be 




m make not your Piece like a Pi&ure, 
rather than like Nature it [elf ; and 
particularly, you mufi obferve to exprefs 
the true Temper as well as the true 
Phifionomy of the Perfoms that are 
Drawn -, for it would be very abfurd to 
give a Smiling, Airy Countenance 
to a Melancholly Perfon ; or, to 
make a Young, Lively Woman, 
Heavy and Grave. T/i faid of Apel- 
les, that he exprejfed ^Countenance 
and true Air of the Perfons he Drew, 
to fo great a degree, that fever al Phy- 
fionomifts did predict Events upon his 
Pictures to the Perfons Drawn by him, 
and that with true Succefi. If after 
that, you can give your Picture a great 
Relievo, and make your Colours Re~ 
prefent the true Vivacity of Nature, 



p& have done pur Work as to that pan 
of Tainting, which is no [mall one , ie- 
ing> next to Hiftory, the mofi difficult 
to obtain > for though there he but lit- 
tle Invention required* yet 'tis necef- 
fary to have a Solid Judgment 
md Lively Fancy. 


Pray, what is properly Invention 
in a Pi&ure ? 


Inventions the Manner of Expr effing 
that Fable and Story which the Fainter 
has chofenfor the Subjetl of his Fiece ; and 
may principally be divided into- Order 

P 2 

and Decorum. By the firfi , the 
fainter places the parts of bis Subject 
properly, fo as the Spectator may ima- 
gine that the thing did not happen other- 
wife than as it is there Keprefented ,• 
and fo as the whole Content of the Sto- 
ry , though it imhrace never fo many 
Figures, make bat one BODY, 
Agreeing with its felf in all its 

For Example : Suppofe a Painter 
to Reprefent the Story of the Jews 
gathering Manna in the Defart • 
he m/ifi fo order it, that the Perfons 
employed in the Piece do all do the fame 
thing, "though in different Aptitudes ; and 
there mufi appear in their Counte- 
nances the fame Joy and Defire of this 
Heavenly Food ; and hefides, he mufl 
Reprefent a Countrey proper, and 


1 1 7 

give his Figures their Draperies ac- 
cording to the Cuftoms and Man- 
ners of the Nation he Keprefents : 
all this Raphael has done in this ve- 
ry Story : and indeed, that part of 
Invention was fo great in him, 
that he feldom Defigned a Story in 

hisfirft SCHIZZOS, that he did 
not do it four or five fever al ways, to choofe 
at lafi the be ft. But to do this, a 

Painter, befides a Fanciful, Flourifh- 
ing Genius of his own, muft help him- 
felf by reading both Hiftory and Fa- 
ble , and Converfing with Poets and 
Men of Learning ; but above all, the 
Fainter muft have a care that he pitch 
not upon fucb an Invention as is beyond 
his Forces to perform. 



"Some Obfervations there are abut 
the Number of Figures fit to be em* 
ployed in an Hiftorical Piece. Han- 
nibal Carrache was of Opinion, that 
a Viece that contained above twelve Fi- 
gures, could never be free from Confu- 
fion -, and the Reafon that he ufed to 
give, was ; firfi, That he thought 
that no Piece could be well with 
more than three great Gruppos, or 
Knots of Figures : And Secondly, 
That that Silence and Majefty 
which is neceffary in V aiming, is 
loft in that Multitude and Croud 
of Figures. But if your Subje£fc be 
fucb as confi rains you to a Multitude , 
fucb as the Keprefentation of a Battle, or 
of the Lafl Day of Judgment* then you 
are like wife difpenfed from that great 



Care of Fkijbing ; but muft chiefly jludy 
Union , and the difpopng of your 
Lights and Shadows. The Painter 
mujl alfo take Care, that bis Scene be 
known by his Piece at firfl view, by fome 
Ingenious Invention to exprefs the 
Countrey : Such wos that of Nealces 
a Greek Painter, who having Drawn 
a Sea-Fight between the ^Egyptians 
and the Perfians ,• to exprefs, that the 
Action happened at the Mouth of the 
Nile, made an Afs drinking by the fide 
of the Riven and a Crocodile ready 
to devour him ; that being the proper Ani- 
mal of that River. 

The fee ond part of Invention k 
Decorum } that is, that there be no- 
thing Abfurd nor Difcordant in the 
Piece : and in this part, the Lombard 
Painters are very faulty ; taking Liber- 


ties that move one almofi to Laugh- 
ter ; Witnefs Titian himfelf, who Drew 
Saint Margaret a Stride upon the Dra- 
gon : and moft of the Lombard Pain- 
ters are fubjecl to a certain Abfurdity 
of Anachronifaie's Drawing* For Ex- 
ample, our Saviour upon the Crofs, and 
Saint Francis and Saint Benedi£t 
looking on, though tbey did not live till 
eight hundred Tears after our Savi- 
our s Paffion. All Indecencies are like- 
wife to be avoided : and Michael An- 
gelo doth juftly deferve to be Cenfured, 
in his great Picture of the Day of 
Judgment, for having expo fed to view 
in the Church it felf, the fecret parts 
of Men and Women, and made Fi- 
gures among the Bleffed that kifs one 
another moft tenderly. Raphael on the 



contrary, was fo great an Observer of De- 
corum, that though his Sabjeft led' 
him to any Liberties of that kind* he 
would find a way to keep to the Rules of 
Modefty : and indeed, he feems to 
have been Infpired for the Heads of his 
Madonna's and Saints, it being im- 
poffible to imagine more Noble Phyfio- 
nomies than he gives them ; and withal, 
an Air of Pudour and SanUity that firikes 
the Spectator with Refpect. 

Friend, . , 

This puts me in. mind of the 
moving part of Painting ; which 
is , the ftirring of the Affeftions 
of the Spe&ator by the Expreffion 
of the Paffions in the Piece ; and 

CL me- 


methinks this might well be called 
a part of Painting. 


It is Comprehended under that of In- 
vention y and is indeed the mojl diffi- 
cult part of it, as depending imrely 
upon the Spirit and Genius of the 
Painter, who can exprefs things no other- 
wife than as he conceives them $ and 
from thence come the different Manners ; 
or > as one may call them , Stiles of 
Painting ; fome Soft and Pleafing, 
others Terrible and Fierce , others 
Majeftick, others Low and Humble, 
as we fee in the STILE of P 0- 
E T S ; and yet all Excellent in their 




Pray, if you were to give your 
Judgment about thofe Painters 
whom you efteem moft univerfal, 
and whofe Works were fitteft to 
be Studied , whom would you 


/ Jboald begin with Raphael, whofe 
Graces and Skill are beyond Imitation, 
and can only be Admired till Heaven 
[ends [itch another Genius down to Ad- 
vance the ART beyond what he brought 
it to : after him, I think that Giulio 
Romano and Polidoro, with Perino 
del Vaga, may carry the Bell for De- 

0^2 fign 


ilgn and Invention. Tor Beauty of 
Colouring, Correggio, Titian, and 
Parmigiano an, without , the 
moft Inimitable Mafters : Paul Ve- 
rbnefe had a mofi Rapid Genius* 
full of Fire and Invention, an Adrni* 
rable Colourer, but not an exalt De- 
signer, nor true Choofer of the befi Forms 
for a Dark, Strong Manner, fome- 
what Smoked, but very Learned : I 
think that Giorgione Pordenone and 
Caravagio are Admirable •■ And in 
tbefe Latter Times the Carraches feem 
to have had all the Qualities together, bb* 
ing Excellent Designers, Admira- 
ble Colourifts, full of Graces, and 
of Great Skill in- Managing their 
Lights and" Shadows. Infomuch that 
there, k. little Amendment- to be ex~ 



petted in Painting, after fach A R- 


You fay nothing of Michael An* 
gelo, hionardo da Vinci, Vouffin, and a 
great many others. 


I have elfe where given their Chara- 
cters ; which becaafe they are not Uni- 
verfal, I do not here propofe them for 
"Patterns : Michael Angelo was a migh- 
ty Defigner, and that was all : Of Li- 
onardo, who was Equal to*, him in every 
thing* toe have nothing left, or very little ; 
As for Pouflin, the fo much Admired 
Frenchman ; his. way-was. in. Little, for the;. 



mofi' part > and fome are of Opinion he 
could not do in Great ; or at leafi, he 
did not delight in it > having done but 
two Pieces in all his Life time, that 
were as tig as the Natural ; i his Fi- 
gures were generally of two or three 
Foot long ; his Compofition Orderly, 
his Invention Florid ; but particular- 
ly, he had a Talent for Expreffng the 
PASSIONS : which wasmoft Ad- 
mirable : His Colouring inclines more 
to the Antique than to Nature. And 
he has left many Pieces unfinijbcd. But 
take him altogether in his Way, he is a 
Great MAN, but not of that fir ft 
Rink ^/PAINTERS, whom all 
ARTISTS muft look upon as the 
Great Originals that Heaven hath 
given to Mankind to Imitate ,• and 



tobofe WORKS will not only be the 


ADMIRATION of all After Ages, 

as long as Painting Jball retain 

any Efieem amongfl 


The End of the Dialogue's. 



The LIFE of 


A Vlorenth Painter. 

HAT Deluge of Calami- 
ties which, for divers 
hundreds of Years, had 
overwhelm'd Italy, had 
not only ruin'd all the 
publick Fabricks and the 
product of the Induftry 
of the Antients, but like wife fo extinguifhed 
the Arts themfelves that there was not an 
Artificer in any kind left : when it pleafed 

R GLq4 

126 Vie LIFE of 

God that about the year 1240, there was Born 
in Florence, Jean Cimabue who firft Revived the 
Art of Painting. 

He was of the Family of the C IMABV £, 

in thofe dayes reputed Noble ; and. being a 
promifing Child , his Father fent him to 
Schoole to the Moneftry of Santla Maria No- 
vella, where one of his Relations was profe£. 
for of Grammer to the Novices of that Con- 
vent. But he inftead of minding his Book, 
ufed to fpend all his time in Drawing of Fi- 
gures of Men, or Horfes, or the like, upon 
Paper, or the backfide of his Books : Following 
thus the powerful dictates of Nature, which 
defign'd him for another Profeffion, much a- 
bout this time,thofe who Governed in Florence* 
invited fome Painters out of Greece, that the 
Art of Painting which was totally Loft, 
might be Reftored among the Italians', and 
the firft work they undertook, was the Chap- 
pel of the Gondi in Santla Maria Novella, which 
they Painted \ the Front and Vault of it i s 
now fo Ruin'd by time, that the Work is 



hardly to be difcerned. Here Cimabue follow- 
ing his fecret Inclination, ufed to get from 
School and pafs all day with thofe Painters, 
to fee them work. So that at laft, his 
Father perceiving how fond he was of that 
Art, agreed with the Greek Painters to take 
him to their Care, they judging that he was 
very likely to fucceed in the Profeffion. Ac- 
cordingly in a fhort time he was fo help'd by 
Nature, that he furpaued his Mafters, both 
in Defign and Colouring ; for they not at all 
attentive to Improve their Art, had conten- 
ted themfelves with a plain flat manner ; as 
•we may fee in thofe of their Works that have 
been preferved to our time; but Cimabue 
though he imitated them, yet he had a much 
freer way, as appears by his Works that re- 
main. The chief of which are the back of 
the great Altar in Sanffa Cecilia, and in San- 
8a Croce a Madonna, which is yet faftned to 
a Pillar on the right hand of the Quire : Af- 
ter which he drew a Saint Francis upon a 
Field of Gold j and which was new in thofe 

R 2 days 

12 8 The LIFE of 

days, he drew the Figure after the Life as 
well as he could, and round about in the 
Borders all the Story of his Life in twenty 
Squares, full of little Figures, all upon a Field 

of Gold. 

.yjj-fr U 

After this, having undertaken a great Pi- 
cture for the Monks of the Order of Val~Om- 
brofa, in the Abby of the Trinity in Florence, he 
mewed in that Work much more Diligence 
and Invention, and particularly in the Apti- 
tude of a Madonna , with her Son in her 
Arms, adorned by a number of Angels round 
about, the whole upon a Field of Gold; which 
Piece was by the Monks»placed upon the great 
Altar of the faid Church, from whence be- 
ing in procefs of time taken away to make 
room for one of Alijjfo Baldovinetti, it was pla- 
ced in one of the Chappels on the left fide of 
the Church. 

After this, Working in Frefio at the Hofpi- 
tal of the Porcellana, in the middle of the great 
Gate, he Drew on one fide, the Figure of the 
Virgin M*rj, and the Angel Gabriel, and on 


C I M A BU £. 129 

the other our Saviour, with Ckophas and I«- 
cas, all of them whole lengths ; and in the 
Cloathing he fliewed much more freedom and 
Strength than had yet been feen, leaving the 
old Fafhioned way, which was full of Lines 
and Porfils, and giving a foftnefs not before 
known ; for this hard flat manner, was all 
that at firft thofe Painters had attained to, and 
that not by any Rules or Science, but by a 
certain Tradition, with which they contented 
themfelves, leaving it to one another, with- 
out ever dreaming of mending their way of 
Defigning, or that of their Colouring, or gra- 
cing their Pieces with any fort of Invention. 
By this time the Fame of Cimabue began to 
be ib fpread, that he was lent for to many 
Remote places, and among*! the reft to Afee/z, 
a Gity of Vmbria, and the place of the Birth 
of Saint Francis ; there in the lower Church 
in company of fome of thofe Greek Painters* 
he Painted fome of the Ceiling and the fides 
of the Church, with the Stories of the Lives 
of our Saviour and Saint Francis, in all which 


I3 o tbe LIFE of 

he fo far outdid the Greeks his Concurrents, 
that taking courage he refolv'd to Paint by 
himfelf, and undertook the upper Church in 
Frefco : There over the Quire, he Painted in 
four places divers Stories of our Lady, that 
is her Death, when her Soul is carried by 
Chrift into Heaven upon a Throne of Clouds, 
and when in the middle of a Quire of An- 
gels, he puts the Crown upon her Head f 
there beiug at her Feet great numbers of 
Saints of both Sexes ; all which now arealmoft 
confum'd by Tims. Then in the Five Parti- 
tions of the Vault, or Ceiling, he Painted 
likewife many Stories. 

In the firft over the Quire, he Drew the 
four Evangelifts bigger than the Life, and 
that fo well, that even to this day, the Skil- 
ful do acknowledg a good Manner in them ; 
the freihnefs of the colouring of the Flefh, 
fhewing ftill how much Painting was behold- 
ing to Cimabue. 




The fecond Partition, he filled with Gol- 
den Stars, upon a Field of Azure Ultra- 



In the third, He made in every Square, a 
Round, and in that a Figure, which were in 
all four, to wit, J ejus Chrift, the Blefed Virgin, 
Saint John 'Baptifr, and Saint Francis. 

The fourth, He filled with Stars, as be- 

And in the fifth, He Painted the four 
Doftors of the Church, and by each of them, 
one of the firft Founders of the Mona/tical 
Orders; a Work certainly, that required 
great Pains and Diligence- 
Having finifhed the Ceilings , he Paint- 
ed the left fide of the Church with fix- 
teen Stories; Eight out of the Old Telia- 
ment, and Eight out of the New. Then 
over againft them, again he Drew fixteen 


r 3 2 The L IF E of 

Stories more, which were the chief Actions 
of our Saviour, and of the BlefTed Virgin, 
ending with the Aflumption of our Lady, 
and the coming down of the Holy Ghoft up- 
on the Apoftles. All which works befides,that 
they were of fo great an Extent, were excel- 
lently well Dilpofed , and with Judgment 
and Invention carried on ; fo that without 
doubt, they muft raife a great Admiration 
in the Men of thofe Times, who had never 
feen any thing like them, and even in me, 
who faw them in the Year ij6^, that is a- 
bove Two Hundred Years after they were 
made. They produced that Effect, that I 
could not but wonder, how Cimabue, in 10 
much Obfcurity of the Art, had been able 
to lee fo clear. Having finimed thefe, he 
began to Paint the remainder of the Church, 
from the Windows downwards , but being 
called away to Florence, about ibme private 
Concerns, they were afterwards Finiihed by 
Ohiotto. One Obfervatibn I cannot omit, 
which is, That of all thefe Paintings, thole 


C I M A B U E. 129 

that have beft preferred themfelves are thofe 
of the Vaults and Ceilings, as being leaft in- 
jured by the Duft, and other Accidents. 

Being come back to Florence, he Painted for 
the Church of Santla Maria Novella, where he 
firft went to School, a great piece of our Lady, 
which is ftill to be feen between the Chappel 
of the Rucillai, and that of the Bardi di Vernia, 
and was the biggeft Pi&ure that had yet been 
feen in thofe days. One may perceive by the 
Angels that are drawn in it, that he had ftill 
the Greek way of his firft Mafters, though 
bettered, and endeavouring at the Modern 
way of Painting. It produced neverthelefs, 
fc much Wonder, in the people of thole 
Times, that it was carried from Cimabues 
Houfe to the Church with Trumpets before 
it, and in a folemn ProceiHon, and he was 
highly Rewarded and Honoured by the City 
for it. There is a Tradition, that while CL 
mabue was doing this Piece in a Garden, he had 
near the Gate of Saint Peter, that Charles of 
Anjou King of Naples, came through Florence, 

S where 

134 rbe LIFE 4 

where being Received with all poffible de- 
nionftrations of Honour, amongfl other En- 
tertainments, the Magiftrates carried him to 
fee this Piece ; and becaufe no Body had yet 
leQn it, all the Gentry of Florence, both Men 
and Ladies, waited upon him thither, with 
fomuch extraordinary Joy and Feafting, that 
the people changed the Name of the place, 
and called it Borgo Allegry, as much as to fay, 
the Merry Suburb ; which Name it has retain- 
ed to this day, though it has fince been enclo- 
ied in the City. 

There are fome Works of his likewife in 
Fifa, and amongft the reft one in the Cloyfter 
of Sanfta Francefco, near the Church Door in 
a corner. Tis a Story of our Saviour upon 
the Crofs, with fome Angels round about 
him, who feem to carry certain Words with 
their Hands to the eare of a Madonna*., who is 
all in Tears on one fide, and to Saint John the 
Evangelift on the other fide; the words to the 
Virgin. are thefe, Mulier Ecce filius tuus : And. 
to Saint JobR y Ec ce Muter, tua. And then ano- 

C I M A BU E. 135 

ther Angel holds in his Hands thefe other 
Words, Ex ilia hora accept earn Difcipulus in fu- 
am. In all which we may obferve, That Ci- 
mabue begun to open the way to Invention by 
the means of Words , which though they 
were but a poor contrivance, yet they (hew- 
ed that his Fancy was ftirring and endeavour- 
ing to exprefs its felf. 

Having thus by means of his Works acqui- 
red tohimfelf great Fame, and a good Eftate, 
he was at lafl joyned in company with Ar- 
nolfo Lapiy a Man in thofe days famons for 
Architecture. In the Fabrick of Santla 
Maria del. Fior in Florence, in which Employ- 
ment , being arrived to the Age of Sixty 
Years, he Died in the Year 1 300. having Re- 
fufcitated Painting as it were from the Dead. 
He left many Difciples, and amOngfl the reft, 
GhiottOy who proved an Excellent Matter, and 
Lived in the fame Houfe that his Matter 
Cimabue had done in the Strada Dellocomero. 

Cimabue was Buried in Sanfta Maria, del 
Fiore. And we may fay, That if he had not 

S 2 been 

132 The L IF E of 

been followed fo clofe, and fo much Out* 
done by his Schollar Ghktto, his Fame would 
have been much greater ; as appears by thefe 
Yerfes of Dante : 

Credette Sirnabue nella Pittura, 

Tener lo campo e bora ha Ghiotto // Grido 9l 

Si che la Fama di colui ofcura. 

Cimabue his Pi&ure is yet to be feen, done 
by the Hand of Simon Sanefe, in the Chappel 
houfeof Sanffa Maria Novell j, made, in Porfil, in, 
the Hiftory of Faith; in a Figure which 
has a Lean Face, a little Red Beard, in point 
with, a Capuche , or Monks Hood , upon his 
Head, after the faihion of thofe Times : 
And the Figure next to him, is Simon Senefe 
himfeff, who Drew his own Picture by the 
means of two Looking GlafTes. 

I have nothing more to fay of Citnabue,, hut 
only that in a little Book of Defigns, where. 
I have ibnie of all the Matters, 11 nee his time. 
I have like wife two or three little Things of 


G H I OTTO. 132 

his in Red Minium, by which, though now 
a-days they may appear fomewhat ftiff, yet 
one may perceive by them, how much Pain- 
ting was beholden to him. 

The LIFE of 


Both Painter, Sculptor, and Architect* 

GHIOTTO was Born in the Year, 
\iy&. within Fourteen Miles of the 
City of Florence, in the little Village 
of Vejpignano, his Father's name was Bondone r 
a plain Country Man. When he was about. 
Ten years Old, his Father ufed to . fend himr 


138 7 be L IF E of 

out to keep Sheep , and while they were 
Feeding, he ufed to Draw fomething or ano- 
ther upon the Sand : Finding in hinifelf a 
ftrong Inclination for Defign, one day Cima- 
bue, going for fome Occafions of his own, 
from Florence to Vejfiignano, found Ghiotto, who 
while his Sheep were Feeding, was drawing 
one of them after the Life, upon a plain flat 
Stone, with another Stone, fomewhat fharp- 
ned at both ends ; having never Learned the 
way of doing it from any, but from Nature. 
Cimabue aftonifhed , ftood ftill , and having 
confidered the Child and his Work, he ask'd 
him. If he would go and Live with him at 
Florence ? To which the Child anfwered, That 
if his Father was willing, he would go with 
all his heart. Whereupon he went to Bon- 
done his Father, who was eafdy perfuaded to 
give him Gbiotto, as thinking it a preferment 
for the Child; fo Cimabue took him along 
with him to Florence, there being well Inftru- 
6ted by Cimabue, and helped by Nature. He 
had not long applied himfelf to Defigning, 



but he quite put down that old flat Greek 
way, and becoming a ftrong Imitator of 
Nature, began to revive that which has been 
fince called the Modern Way of Painting : 
For he ufed often to draw Men and Women 
by the Life ; a thing that had not been Pra- 
clifed in Two hundred Years before, or at 
leaft, not with that Succefs and Skill that 
Gbiotto had; as appears by fome Things of 
that kind, which we have preferved to this 
day. Amongft the reft, he Drew Dante AU- 
ghier'h the famous Poet of thofe Times, and 
his Intimate Friend, as may be leen in that 
Chappel of the Palace of the Podefta of Florence : 
In the fame Chappel, is likewife the Picture 
of Ser Brunetto Latini, Dantes Mafter, and of 
M. Corifo Donati , a noble Citizen , and of 
great Renown in thofe Times. 

Ghiotto's firft publick Works, were in the 
Chappel of the High Altar. In the Abby at. 
Florence, in which he did many good things* 
but particularly, an Annunciation of oua?- 
Lady, by the -Angel Gabriel, in which th*r 


13* tbe LIFE of 

Fear and Surprife of the Virgin Mary> is ex- 
preiTed, fhe being fo frighted, that (he is 
ready almoft to run away. The Picture of the 
great Altar, is likewife of Ghiotto's hand, and 
is preferved there, for the refpecl: they bear 
to the Memory of fo great a Man. In Sanfta 
Croce, there are likewife four Giappels, pain- 
ted by him ; three between the Sacrifly&nd the 
great Chappel, and one on the other fide over 
againft : The firft is the Chappel of M. Ridolpho 
de Bardi 9 which is that where the Bell-ropes 
are, and the Life of Saint Francis; at whofe 
death, many of his Moncks feem to exprefs 
very much Grief. In the other Chappel, 
which belongs to the BeruzzU there are two 
Stories of the Life of Saint John Baptift> to 
whom the Chappel is dedicated ; and in them 
the dancing of Herodias, with all the other 
Apparatus of a great Feaft, which is very well 
and lively defigned : As likewife two other 
Stories of Saint John the Evangelift, are Incom- 
parable ; to wit, that where he Refufcitates 
Vrujiana, and when he is himfelf, carried up 


GHI0T7 0. i 37 

to Heaven. In the third Chappel, which 
belongs to the Family of the Oiugni-, and is 
likewife called, The Chanel of the Apoftles ', he 
has Painted many Stories of their Martyr- 
dom. And in the fourth, which is on the 
other fide of the Church, towards the North, 
which belongs to the Tolinghi, and the Spinelli, 
and is Dedicated to our Lady ; he painted 
the Story of her Birth, her Marriage to Jo- 
feph , the Annunciation , the Adoration of 
the Magi, and when our Lady offers her lit- 
tle Son to Simeon ; which is one of the fined 
Things in the whole Work. For befides the 
great Affection with which the Old Man 
feems to receive our Saviour, the Action of 
the Child is admirable ; for being half afraid, 
he turns to his Mother, and takes her about 
the Neck, as Children ufe to do, at the fight 
of any new Object that frights them. 

In the Chappel of the BaronceUi, in the 
fame Church, there is a piece in Diftemper, 
of the Hand of Gbiotto, where the Crown- 
ing of our Lady in Heaven, is exprefled 

T with 

138 Jhe LIFE of 

with infinite Labour , there being a very 
great number of feveral Figures , and a 
Choire of Angels and Saints , moil: Elabo- 
rately done ; and becaufe that in this Piece? 
he has written his Name and the Year, in 
Letters of Gold. All Artifts muft needs have 
Ghiotto in the higheft efteem, confidering the 
Beginnings he gave fo long ago, to true De- 
igning, and good Colouring. In the fame 
(Jhurch of Sanffia Croce , are many other of 
his Works, and in the Refeffory Sacrijly, and 
other places. 

He Worked likewife in the Church Del 
Carmine, in the Chappel of Saint John Baptifl^ 
the whole Life of that Saint divided in diffe- 
rent pieces. In the Pallace of the Gyelfes 
Party in Florence , there is likewife of his 
Hand, a Hiftory of Faith in Frefco, moil ex- 
ceeding well Painted ; and in it amongfl: the 
reft, is the Pidlure of Pope Clement the 4th. 
who created ; the Magiftrates of the Guelfe 
Party, giving them his own Coat of Arms, 
which they keep to this day. 


GHIOTTO. i 39 

Having done thefe things in 'Florence , he 
was Invited to Afiifa, a City in Vtnbria, where 
Cimabue had Painted before, by the then Ge- 
neral of the Francifcans, Fra. Gioranni Di Muro 
delta Marca ; there he undertook the upper 
Church, and painted in it Sixteen Stories, of 
the Life and Gefts of Saint Francis , of each 
fide of the Church ; and to fay truth, in this 
Work, he acquired great Fame : For there 
as in it great Variety, not only of the Po~ 
ftures and Aptitudes of the Figures , but 
likewife in the whole Competition; in which 
he has (ho wed himfelf a great Obferver of 
Nature, as well as of the Drefs and Cuftoms 
of thofe Times. And among the reft, there 
is a Story, where one being very Thirfty, in 
whofe Looks, the longing for Water fhows 
it felf, drinks ftooping at a Fountain, with 
wonderful Affe&ion , in fo much that one 
would think it were a Live Figure. And 
indeed, in this whole Work, Gbiotto followed 
Nature fo clofe, that he deferves to be cal- 
led Nature's Difciple; for the great Order, 

T * Pro- 

I4I The LIFE of 

Proportion, and Facility, that he has (howed 
in it all, along. 

He painted like wife in the Church below, 
many thingsof the Life and Glorification of 
Faint Francis y in all which he fhowed great 
Yariety of Invention , and amongft other 
things > drew his own Picture, rarely well> 
in one of thofe Stories : And over the Door 
of the S aerify-, is a Saint* Francis in Frefco, 
who recieves the Stigmats upon his Kneesv 
■which is fo Devout, and full of AffecT:ion,that 
I take it to be the beft thing that Ghiotto. ever 


Having finilhed his Painting zt-Aftifa, he 

returned to Florence, where as foon as he was 

Arrived;, he undertook a piece to fend to 

Ma*, it was the Story of Saint Francisrin 

that horrible Defer* of Vj>rma 9 where befides 

the Landskip of Rocks and Trees, proper 

to that ; the Saint himfelf was placed 

in that Rapture, of receiving the Stigmats^ 

and in it ihawed a moil fervent defire of 

them, and a rnojCi zealous Love towards our 


G HIOTTO. 140 

Saviour, who appears in the Air, environed 
with Angels -> and in the lower part of the 
Piece, are three Stories of the fame Saints 
Life moil: admirable ! This Piclure, which to 
this day, is kept with great Veneration, in 
the.Church Saint Francifco di Pifa> upon a Pi* 
lafter near the great Altar : Was the occafion 
that the Pifans, having finifhed their Fabrick 
of the Campo Sanfto y according to the defign of 
Giovanni di Nicola, one of their own Citizens, 
lent for Gbhttos to* Paint one part of the Inr 
flde of it ; That as on the Outfide , it 
it was adorned with Marble and Sculpture, 
performed with great Expence; covered with 
Lead on the Top, and within full of Statues 
and Tombs of the Antient, brought from 
many parts of the World, lb* that it might: 
be Adorned with the beft Modern Painting ; 
on the Infide,by the beft Painter thenExtasit. . 
Ghiotto therefore painted* on one of the fidas . 
within, fix Stories of theLife-of^ in Frefco ~* 
and becaufe he confidered, that on that fide 
where he was to Work , the Sea. W indrdid ft 

142 the LIFE of 

chiefly blow, which being moift, was apt 
to make the Marble fweat, as it does in moii 
of the Houfes in Pifa, which being mingled 
with a Salt,that comes out of the Stones, was 
apt to eat up the Colours : He caufed a Coat 
of Lime plainer and beaten Brick, mingled 
together , to be laid on pettry thick every 
where, where he was to Work ; and by that 
means he has fo well obtained his end, that 
the Pictures he made there, are pre! erved to 
this day, and might have been much better 
kept, if the negligence of thofe who mould 
have taken care of them, had not let the wet 
come to them in fome places, which has made 
them fcale and look black : Befides, that it is 
the nature of Plaifter, when mingled with 
Quicklime, to mould and grow moift with 
time, and by confequence, mull: of neceffity 
fpoil the Colours, though at firft itfeems to 
take well with them. 

In thofe Stories of his, befides the Picture 
M. Farinata de Gliuberti, there are many very 
fine Figures : As particularly, Some Country 


G H I TTO. 143 

people, who bring Job the ill news of the lofs 
of fome of his Flocks, and have the Coun- 
tenance of Men truly Afflicted for fo great a 
Calamity : Likewife, there is the Figure of 
a Servant, who ftands by Job, as he is all full 
of Sores, and is forfaken by every one, with 
a Fan in his Hand, to give him the comfort 
of a cool Air, and drive away the Flies from 
his Sores, while with the other Hand he 
flops his Nofe becaufe of the flench, This 
Figure has a marvellous Aptitude in all its 
parts ; and indeed,; all the Figures of thefe 
Stories, both Men and Women, have excel- 
lent Heads, and the Drapery is wrought with 
great Beauty and Softnefs. 

It is no wonder therefore , if this Work . 
fpread his Fame far and near, in fo much 
that Pope Benedict the ph. of Trevi//, fent into ■■» 
Tufcany, a Gentleman of his Court, to fee 
what fort of Man Ghiotto was, and to give 
him an account of his Painting, having de- - 
fign to Employ him in Saint Peter's Church i 
at Rome, This Gentleman having flaid fome - 


144 D* LIFE of 

time at Sienna, and there informed himfelf 
what Excellent Mailers there were at Flo- 
rence, in Painting and Mufiek, came at lafl 
to Florence \ and going ftreight to Ghiotto's 
Houfe, he found him at Work in his Paint- 
ing Rome. Having told him the Popes In- 
tention , and how he defigned to Employ 
him: Hedefired of him, to fend fome piece 
of Defign by him to his Holinefs. Ghiotto, 
who was a pleafant ready Man, took a meet 
of White-paper, and fetting his Arm clofe 
to his Hip, to keep it fteady , he with one 
flroke of a Red-lead Pencil, drew a Circle fo 
round, and fo equal, that it was wonderful 
to fee it : Then prefenting it to the Gentle- 
man, he told him fmiling, That there was 
a piece of Delign, which he might carry to 
his Holinefs, Says the Courtier, half angry, 
Shall I have nothing but this to fhow the 
Pope ? That's more than enough, faid Gbiotto, 
put it among the other Defigns you have 
from other Painters, and fee whether it will 
not make it ielf known. The Gentleman 



feeing he could get nothing elfe from him, 
left him in difcontent, being half afraid he 
had put a Jear upon him, and that he mould 
be Laughed at, at his return to Rome. How- 
ever, being come, and mowing the Pope all 
the other Defigns-, he (hewed this alio of 
Ghiotto% telling the Pope how he had done it 
without Gompaffes, or fo much as ftirring 
his Arm from his Side. The Pope, who un- 
derftood fomething of the Art, eafily com- 
prehended by this, how much Ghiotto in 
ftrength of Defign, did Excel all the other 
Painters of hisTime;he therefore lent for him 
to Rome, and there being extreamly fatisfied 
with his Skill, he made him Paint Five Sto- 
ries of the Life of Chrift our Saviour, in Saint 
Peter's, and in the Sacrify the chief piece, all 
which were done by Ghiotto, with fo much 
diligence and care, that a more finimed Work 
in Diftemper, never was performed by him. 
And the Pope rewarded him accordingly, for 
kefides many Favours he bellowed upon him, 
he prefented him with Five hundred Ducats 

V of 

14* Ihe LIFE of 

of Gold, which for thofe days, was a Noble 

"ViThile Gbiotto flayed at Rome, he contracted 
a great Friendfttip with Oderici de Agobbio y an 
Excellent Mafter in Miniature, who was then 
Employed by the Pope to paint a great many 
of Books , of the Library of the Popes Pal- 
lace > in, Miniature; moft which have finee 
been loft , or have otherwife perifhed by 
Time. I have in my Book of Collections of 
Antient Defigns, iome pieces of this Oderico, 
who indeed, was an Excellent Matter, but. 
yet Franco Bolognefe, who Worked at the fame 
time for the Pope, was much beyond him ; as 
may be feen likewile in my Book of Col- 
lections, where there is amongft the reft, an 
admirable Eagle and a Lion, that breaks a de- 
licate Tree, all in Miniature. 

The Pope having liked Gbiotto s Painting, 
ordered him to paint Stories of the Old and 
New Teftament , all round Saint Peters : 
Whereupon to begin* he made the Angel that 
is over the Organ, of Seven Palms high, as 


G H I TTO. 147 

alfo many others, moft of which have been 
Ruined, when the Old Church of Saint Pe- 
ters came to receive New Walls, and lbme 
likewife have been carried from the Old 
Church, and placed under the Organ; as par- 
ticularly a Modonna, which being painted up- 
on the Wall, was by the means of Irons and 
other Faftnings, taken out of the Wall en- 
tire, and placed in a handfome confpicuous 
part of the Houfe of Doctor Nicolo Acciaivoli, 
a Florentine, and a great Lover of all the ex- 
cellent pieces of Art : He adorned this piece 
of Ohiotto's with rich Carvings, and Modern 
Pi&ures round about it. 

Of Ghiotto's Hand, is likewife the Ship of 
Mufeick Work, which is over the three Gates 
of the Portico, in the entrance to Saint Peters : 
For befides the ftrength of the Defign, the 
Aptitude of the Apoftles in different poftures 
of working againft the Storm, is remarka- 
ble, and particularly the Sail of their Ship, 
feems fo filPd with Wind, and has fo much 
Relievo, that a true Sail can fcarce have more; 

V i and 

14.8 The LIFE of 

and yet it is mighty difficult to make up of 
pieces of Glafs fuch an union of Lights and 
Shadows as is there,and which could hardly be 
Equalled by the Skilfuleft Pencil, There is 
befides upOQ a Rock, one that Filhes with a 
Line, in whofe looks the patience of that 
Sport is rarely well Reprefented , together 
with the hopes of taking fomething at 


Pope Benedict the $th: being dead, Clement the 
5^. Succeeded him, and Transferred the Papal 
Court to Avignon, whither likewite Ghiotto was 
obliged to go : And being- there* he not only 
did many things in Avignon, but in many 
places in France, as well in Frefeo , as D/- 
Jtemper. After ibme ftay there, having per* 
feftly fatisfied the Pope's Inclination, he was 
by him largely Rewarded* and he returned 
to Florence full of Honour and Riches, carry- 
ing with him that Pope's Picture, which he 
gave afterwards to Taddeo Gaddi, his Schollar.- 

This Return -of Gbiottos- to- his own Coun- 
try, was in the Year 131 6. but he was fbon 


G H I TTO. 149 

called away again : For at the Inftance of the 
Signori delta Scala, he went to Padoua, where 
in the Church, called the Sanffo, newly built 
in thofe days, he painted a Chappel moft cu* 
rioufly. From thence he went to Verona, and 
painted divers Things in the Palace of Mejfer 
Cane delta Scala y amongft the reft, the Picture 
of that Lord. In his Return to. Florence, he 
was obliged to take JF 'err or a. in his way, to 
obey the commands of the Lords of Efie, for 
whom he did many Things in that City : At 
the fame time, Dante the famous Poet, hear- 
ing that Ghictto was at Ferrara , and being 
himfelf at Ravenna, where he was then in 
Exile, wrought fo with him, that he, got 
him to Ravenna, where he. painted in Sanffa 
Francifco, fome Stories in Frefco, for the Signorl 
di Polenta, and from thence he went to Vrbino 
Arezzo, in both which places he. wrought di- 
vers Things, and fo.Returned to Florence. 

In the Year 1 322, he was again Invited a- 
broad by Cafiruccio Caftrucani, Lord of Luca, where 
in the Church of Saint Martin, he painteda 


150 The LIVE of 

thrift in the Air, and with him the four Pro- 
testors of that City, Saint Peter, Saint Regolo, 
Saint Martin, and Saint Paulin, who ieem to 
recommend to our Saviour a Pope and an Em- 
perour, which 'tis thought were Frederick of 
Bavaria, and Nicolas the ph. Antipope: At the 
fame time, 'tis thought that Ghiotto gave the 
Defign of the Cattle of Saint Fridiano, in the 
City of Luca , which is a raoft Impregnable 
Fortrefs, it is otherwife called the Fortrefs 
Bella Giufta. 

After this, Robert King of Naples, writ to 
his Son, the King of Calabria, who was then 
at Florence, that he mould by all means fend 
him Ghiotto to Naples, becaufe that having juft 
then made an end of Building the Royal 
Nunnery of Santfa Chiara , he defired the 
Church might be adorned with Pidtures of 
Ghiotto's Hand. He obeyed with joy the Sum- 
mons of fo great a Prince, and painted divers 
of the Chappels with Stories of the Old Te- 
ftament, and fome of the New ; particularly 
thofe out of the Revelations, are thought to 



be the Invention of the Poet Dante, as alio 
thofe very well Invented Stories of the 
Church of Affifa, they having been Intimate 
Friends: And though 'tis true, Dante died 
the Year before, yet 'tis poflible that they 
might have Talked together of thofe Stories 
of the Apocalyps. 

But to return to Naples, Ghiotto painted in 
the Gaftello del Novo* many Things, and chief- 
ly the Chappel, where he fo pleafed the King, 
that very often he ufed to go and fit by him 
when he was at Work ; for Ghiotto was as . 
pleafant in his Converfation, and as ready in « 
his Wit, as with his Pencil. One day, it be- 
ing very hot, the King faid to him,. If I were 
as you, Ghiotto-, I would leave off Working 
this hot Weather : And fo would I, Sir, laid 
Ghiotto,, if I were as you. Another time the 
King defired him to paint the people of 
his Kingdome Emblematically y he drew an 
Afs with an. old pack Saddle upon his Back, , 
and another new one before him, to which 
be was fmelling, as liking it very well, and I 

tipoa i 

152 The L IV E of 

upon both the Saddles, the Crown and Scep- 
ter. The King having defired him to Ex- 
plain what that Picture meant, he laid, It 
was the Condition of his people, who were 
alway defirous of Novelty, and ready to 
change their old Matter for any < new one. 
He painted likewife for the King a Hall, 
which was afterwards ruined by King Abhon- 
fo, in which were the Pictures of moft of the 
great Men of that Age, and amongft the reft 
tiis own. 

In his Return from Naples to Rome, he flop- 
ed at Gaeta , and painted in the Annuntiata, 
fome Stories of the New Teftament, which 
are now much fpoil'd by Time ; but yet not 
fo , but that Gbiotttfs own Picture is very 
diftinguilhable, being near a very fine Cruci- 
fix of his doing. 

Having ftaid fome time at Rome, he was 
prevailed with by Signor Malatefta, who was 
then Lord of Rimini, to go' with him to Ri- 
where in the Church of Saint Francis, 


lie Drew many Stories; all which were loft 


GHIOTTO. i 53 

when the Church was new Euilt by Sigifmorfd 
Mafatefta, but in the Cloiiter there remains 
yet the Story of Beat a MicheUina^ which for 
many Reaibns, is one of the beffc Things that 
Ghiotto ever did; for befides the Livelinefs of 
the Heads, which are all Miraculous, and 
the ftrength and force of the I)rapery, which 
is Incomparable : There is a young Woman 
as Beautiful as 'tis poffible for a Woman to be, 
who to free her felf from the Calumny of 
Adultery, Swears upon a Book with a ftupen- 
dious Aptitude, having her Eyes fixed upon 
her Husband, who put her to her Oath, be- 
caufe of a Black Child (he was brought to Bed 
of, which he could not believe was his; and 
as the Husband (hows Diftruft and Anger in 
his Countenance, fo does the Innocent Lady 
fhow Truth and Simplicity iii hers, with fo 
much Piety in her Looks, as was enough to 
convince all the Slanders* byjthat me was no 

The fhortnings likewife that are in another 
piece of this Story, where there are a great 



154 Ik L IV E ef 

number of poor People, are very Commendable, 
and much to be valued by all Artifts, flnce it 
is from them that we have the firfl Principles 
and Manner of doing them, though they are 
not in that perfection which they have fince 
attained to. But above all the other Things 
that are in this Work, is the Aptitude of the 
Saint her felf, while me receives, from the 
Ufurers (he had fold her Land too, the Mo-, 
ney, which (he orders immediately to be dif- 
burfed to the poor ; for in her there appears 
fo. much fcorn and unconcernment for 
Riches, that the very fight of them feems to 
offend her ; while on the other hand r the 
very piclure of Covet oufnels feerns to be Re- 
prefented in a Figure of one, who looking 
towards a Notary, to make him %n the 
Writings , has at the. fame time both his 
Hands upon the Money, expreffihg both his 
Greedinefsand Diftruft : And in the three Fi- 
gures, that hold the Habit of Saint Francis in 
the Air, there is much to be commended, 
particularly in the Drapery, the Foldings of 



which are fo eafie and natural, that it muft 
be confefTed, that Ghiotto was Born to bring 
Light to the Art, in all its parts. He drew 
in a Ship, which makes a piece of this Work, 
Signor Malatefta, moft wonderfully ftrong and 
lively, with many other Figures of Seamen, 
all in proper Aptitudes ; and there is a Fi- 
gure particularly remarkable in its action, 
for feeming to Talk with others, he puts one 
Hand to his Face to fpit into the Sea, and not 
offend thofe he Talks with ; and indeed this 
is altogether one of the beft Things done by 
Ghiotto, who accordingly received both great 
Rewards, and infinite Commendations from 
Signor Malatefia. 

Being Returned to Florence with great 
Riches, he wrought a Crucifix in a field of 
Gold in S audio Marco, and another of the fame 
nature in Santla Maria Novella, in which laft, 
■Paccio Campana his Servants wrought with him. 

After this, in the Year 1317. Guido Tarlati 
da Pieta Mala, Bifhop of Arezzo being Dead, 
his Relations having a mind to Erect a fump- 

X 2 teous 

i5<? The LIFE of 

teous Monument for him, as for one who m 
his time, had been the Head of the Gibeline 
Faction in Tufcany : They writ to Qhiotto to 
make them the moft Magnificent Defign that 
he could, and at the fame time defired him to 
provide them a Sculpture of his own chufing, 
of the heft, that were then in Italy: Ghiotta 
made the Defign and fent it them very cour- 
teoully, and the Monument was Finifhed by 
it afterwards. 

The number of his Works is ib great, that 
it is very hard to Enumerate them all, but 
we cannot but mention a piece of his, in the 
Church of the Fratri Humilianti of all Saints of 
Florence, 'tis in Diflemper, and reprefents the 
Death of our Lady, with the ApofHes about 
her. Michael Angelo Bonaronti, uled to fay, 
That the Aptitudes of this Story could not be 
better: And indeed, it is Wonderful, that 
one who Learned the Art of himfelf, and 
Avitbout a Mailer, almofl, mould have at- 
tained to fuch Excellency, as to be Admired 
by the greateftMailers,. Two hundred Years 
after, In 

G H I TTO. i 57 

In the Year 1354. on the 9 tb. of June, he 
undertook the Steeple of Santfa Maria del Fiore, 
and having laid the Foundation very ftrong, 
Twenty Yards deep, and of great Stones \ the 
Work was continued according to his Deiign, 
which was after the Gothick Manner of thofe 
days. All the Stories that were for the Or- 
nament of it, were defigned by himfelf, the 
compafs of the Tower at the bottom, was a 
Hundred Yards, that is Twenty five Yards 
for every fide, and it was a Hundred and 
forty four Yards high ; it was to have on the 
top a Pyramid Fifty Yards high, but that ber 
ing a piece of old Artichedture, all Modern 
Architects have flill been againft the Finifhr 
ing of it, 

Lorenzo of Lione Ghiberti, has Writ, that Ghi- 
otto did not only make the Model for the 
Tower, butalfo made Models for the Sculp- 
ture, where divers of the Stories were done 
in Relievo-, which. Lorinzo lays he law : And it 
is not Incredible, fince Defign and Invention 
are, the parents of Sculpture as well as Paint- 
ing. . Eer 

1 5 8 The LIFE of 

For this Work Ohictto was made a Citizen 
of Florence, and Endowed with a Hundred 
Florins of Gold yearly from the Publick; 
which in thofe days was confiderable. He 
Lived not to fee it Finiihed, and it was after 
his Death purfued by Taddeo Gaddi. His death 
was in the Year 1336. and was much lamen- 
ted by his Countrymen, having had in his 
Life-time the Efteem of all, and the Friend- 
fhip of mod: of the Excellent Men of the 
Age he Lived in: Andamongft the reft of 
Dante and Petrarch , who makes mention of 
him in his Will, and in a Latin Epifik in the 
fixthBookof his Familiar ones, in thefe 
Words : Atque (ut a veteribus ad nova ab Interi- 
ms ad nofira tranfgrediar ) duos ego Novi Piftores 
egregios, nee formofis Jottum Florentinum Cirem. 
Cuius inter Modernos Fama efi> ingens & Simonem 
Senenfem. He was Buried in SanBa Maria del 
Fiore> on the Left Hand as you come into the 
Church, where there is a White Marble Stone 
in Memory of him. 



His Difciples were Taddeo Gaddi, who was 
his Godfbn,and Pucio di Capanna,both Florentines ; 
and we have many Works of the laft, who 
had Extreamly well attained to Ghlotto's Man- 

The L I F E of 



Florentine Yainttr, and Sculptor- 

IT may be feen by Leonardo Da Vinci, as -much-. 
as by any other Example, that the Coe- 
leftial Influences do fometimes fo Unite in. 
one Subje£,as to make all that's performed by 
that Per£bn 3 to feem almaft Divine, and not 


i'6o The LIFE. of 

acquired by any Humane Induftry : And In- 
deed, the admirable Beauty of Leonardo's Bo- 
dy, the infinite Graces of his Mind, and the 
exquifite Penitration with which in all Sci- 
ences and Arts, he attained to the mofl dif- 
ficult part of them with eafe, do (how that 
lie had from above, molt extraordinary Gifts. 
The ftrength of his Mind was always accom- 
panied with.a Dexterity, which alone would 
have made its Way through the World ', and 
he had befides, a Greatnefs and Magnanimity 
in him, more befitting a Prince than a pri- 
vate Man. All which made him not only 
Beloved and Efteemed in his Life time, but 
highly Renowned and Honoured after his 
Death to all Pofterity. 

He was Son of Piero da Vinci, and in the firfl 
beginning of his Education, fhewed fo ftrong 
an Inclination to all forts of Learning, that 
had he conftantly purfued any one, he mull: 
have have been a Prodigie in that kind, but 
he was fo various, that that did very much 
hinder his Excelling. At his nrft learning 



to caft Account, he ufed to puzzle his Mailer 
with QuefHons about Arithmatick, and that in 
a few Months after he had firft applyed him- 
felf to it. He next gave himfelf to Mufick, 
and particularly to play upon the Lute, in 
which he grew lb Excellent, which he would 
play Extempore, things that would Charm 
all that heard him ; and yet though he was 
fo varioufly addicted, he ftill followed De- 
fining, and making of things in Relievo-, as 
two Arts, that above all others did pleafe his 
Fancy, and fix his Application. His Father 
taking more particular notice of this laft In- 
clination, took one day fome of his Defigns* 
and carrying them to Andrea del Verochio, a fa- 
mous Painter, and his intimate Friend, de- 
fired him to tell him Ingenioufly, whether 
his Son Leonardo was ever like to iucceed in 

that Way ? 

Andrea was aftoniftied at the fight of fuch 
bold Beginning, and exhorted his Father to 
give him all fort of Encouragement in that 
Way : Upon which, his Father ordered him 

Y to 

1*2 fli LIT E of 

to go conftantly to Andreas Painting-Houlev 
there to Improve himfelf. Leonardo obeyed 
with joy, and not content with Defigning 
alone, he Exercifed himfelf in all thofe Arts 
which are any ways depending upon it, or 
ufeful to a Painter, or Statuary, fuclias Geo-. 
metrj, Architecture, ferfpe&ive, 6cc. in all which 
he attained to a great perfection. He was be- 
fides, the firft that had thoughts of putting 
the River of Arm into a Chanel from Pi fa to 
Florence, Inventing all forts of Mills, and ci- 
ther Machines, ufeful for ib great a Defigrr 
But becaufe his chief profeflion was Painting 
he fpent much time in Drawing by the Life, 
and often likewife in making Models of 
Earth, and then Clothing them with fine 
Linnen. wet, with the greater!: patience in the 
World : He would. Draw them upon SiEk, 
or fine Linnen, in Black and White, with the 
point of his Pencil, that it was a moft admi- 
rable -thing to fee them y fome of which I 
have in my Book of Defigns. What he did 
upon Paper* was with fo much diligence and 

delicacy x . 


delicacy, that no Man ever came near him. 
I have a Head of his in Scuro> which is 
Divine, and (hows with what lingular 
ftrength he Conceived , and with what ad- 
mirable Dexterity he executed his Thoughts 
with the Pencil. When he was weary of 
Painting, or Statuary, he ufed to bufie him_ 
ielf in finding out Ways how to Level 
Mountains with eafe, or make PafTages 
through them, from one Valley to another; 
as alfo by Leavers, Strings, Pulleys, to raile 
great Weights, and by other Machines to 
drain the Water from low places ; fo that 
his Brains were perpetually employed, and 
of all thefe Tilings he made Defigns, many of 
which I have feen. And in them, he was {Jo 
Curious, as fometimes to Draw the whole 
Lying,or Coiling of a Cable,or other Ropes,fo 
as you might fee the Winding of it from one 
end to the other \ there is one of thele in a 
Print, and in the middle are thefe Words, 
Leonardo Vinci Academia, 

Y 2 He 

164. The L I F E of 

He was fo extream diverting in Converfa- 
tion, that he drew every Body after him ; 
and having, as we may fay in comparifon of 
others, Wrought but very little, yet he Li- 
ved Splendidly , having always many Ser- 
vants, and Horfes ; for which laft, he had a 
great Paflion, and ufed to Draw them by the 
Life. He loved all forts of Animals indeed, 
and would often buy Birds alive out of their 
Cages, only to let them go, and reftore to 
them their loft Liberty. So great was his na^ 
tive Bounty, and the fweetnefs of his Tem- 
per ; in a word, no Man in his Time, ever 
affced with lb much Readinefs, Vivacity, and 
Grace, which gave a particular Character to 
all that he did ', though in his Art he begun 
many Things, but hardly Finifhed any, ha- 
ving conceived them with fo much Perfecti- 
on, that his Hand afterwards, could not fol- 
low the Idaea of his Mind. 

After having Worked fome time with An- 
drea, del Verocchio,. his Mafter employed him in 
a piece of his Undertaking, of the Story of 



Saint John's Baptizing of our Saviour Chrift, 
and in it Leonardo drew an Angel, that held 
lbme Clothes of our Saviour, which he Fi- 
nifhed fo well, that he put down all the other 
Figures of Andrea, in lb much, that fcarce 
any thing but Leonardo's Angel, was taken no- 
tice of. This fo angered his Mafter, to be 
out-done by his own Schollar, and a Young 
Man, that he never more would handle a 
Pencil, or Colours. 

There being a very rich Tent of Gold and 
Silk of Tapiftry Work to be made in Flanders 
for the King of Portugal; the Undertakers 
agreed with Leonardo, to make the Cartoon. 
The Story being that of Adam and' Eve> when 
they eat the forbidden Fruit in Paradiie. 
There he Drew in Charo Scuro, a delicious Mea_. 
dow of Plants and Flowers, full of variety of 
Animals, done with lb much diligence and 
patience, and fo Natural, that none but fo 
divine a Genius, could ever do the like. A- 
mongft the reft there is a Fig-Tree* which bei 
fides the admirable fhortnings of its Leaves, 


U6 fit LIFE of 

and Branches, is painted with fuch Care, that 
it would aftonifh any one to confider, how 
'twas poffible for a Man to do a Thing with 
lb much patience. There is likewife a Palm- 
Tree, which has its Branches fo Lively, and 
their Situation, and exad Simmetry fo ex. 
■preffed, that none but Leonardo's Genius, could 
ever compafs it. The Cartoon being finifhed, 
was left upon his Hands, the Tapiftry Work 
not being gone on with, as was firft defigned ; 
and it is at this time in the Houfe of Saint 
Ottaviam de Medici, it being prefented to him 
not long ago, by Leonardo's Uncle. 

One day, his Father, Ser Piero da Vinci, be- 
ing at his Country Houfe, was defired by one 
of his Tenents, to get him a Buckler painted, 
which he had made out of a Figg-Tree, cut 
down in the Ground ; Ser Piero took the Buck- 
ler, and the fellow being very ufefultohim, 
in FMhing, Fowling, and other Country 
Sports,, he carried it to his Son, and defired 
him to Draw fomething or another upon it. 
Leonardo feeing the Buckler ill ihaped and 



crooked, ftreightned it and Polifhed it, and 
then having carefully plaiftered it over, he 
began to confider what he fhould Draw there, 
that might Fright any one at firft fight, like 
Medufas Shield. To this end, he got toge- 
ther in a Room, where no Body came but 
himfelf, a Collection of Serpents, Lizards, 
Crickets, Butterflies, Graihoppers, and fuch 
like Animals; from the aflemblage of all 
which, ftrangely put together, he made up 
an Animal moil horrible to look too, who 
feemed to poyfon the Air with his Breathy 
for he placed him in a kind of a dark Grotto* 
lending Fire out of his Mouth, and Smoke 
out of hisNoftrils, in fo ftrange a manner' 
that it would fright any one to fee it. He 
took fo much pains about it, that the ftink 
of thofedead Creatures was intolerable, in 
the Room , though not at all perceived by 
leonardo, fo attentive he was upon his Work. . 
The thing being miilhed, he told his Father, > 
that he might have the Buckler when he 
pleafed. One Morning then, Ser Picrc, .his 

1*8 The LIFE of 

Father, came and knocked at the Door, and 
defired the Buckler : Leonardo opened the Door> 
but defired him to flay a little : So return- 
ing into the Room, and having placed the 
Buckler in an obicure Light, upon his Pain- 
ting Desk, he called in his Father ; who not 
expecting any fuch thing, was of a fudden 
flruck with the Apparition of fuch a Mon- 
fler, and retired two or three fleps back. Leo- 
nardo flopped him, and laid, This Work I fee 
will anfwer its end, take it and carry it to 
whom you have promifed it. The thing ap_ 
peared wonderful to his Father , who was 
extreamly pleafed with it, and having fecret- 
ly bought another Buckler, which he cauied 
to be Painted with fome ordinary Invention, 
he kept Leonardo's, and gave the other to his 
Servant, who took it fo kindly, that he fer- 
ved him faithfully ever after. 

Some Months after, Ser Piero y fold Leonar- 
do's Buckler fecretly in Florence, to fome for- 
reign Merchants, for the Sum of a Hundred 
Ducats, who fold it to the Duke of Milan for 
Three hundred. Leonardo 


Leonardo made likewife a moft delicate Ma- 
donna, which Pope Clement the yth. ufed to keep 
in his Chamber; and amongft other Orna- 
ments, of it, he had drawn a Glafs full of 
Water, with flowers in it, where beiidcs the 
lovelynefs of the Flowers, he had counter- 
feited drops of Water upon them, as delicate 
as the Natural ones. He made alio for Anto- 
nio Segn'h his Intimate friend, a Neptune up- 
on a Stormy Sea, carried in his Chair, drawn 
by SeaHorfes, with Whales, and other Sea 
Monfters about him, and the Heads of fome 
Sea Gods, moft delicately defigned ; and this 
Piece was by Fabio Segn'h Son to Antonio, given 
to Mejfer Oioranni Gaddi, with this Epygram, 

Pinxit Virgilius Neptune*- pinxit Homerus, 
Dum Maris undifoni per vada flettit equos-, 
Mente quidem votes ilium conjfexit uterque, 
Vincius aft Oculis jureque vincit eos. 

He took a fancy once to draw in Oyl, a Head 
of a Medufa, with the ftrangeft drefs of Ser- 

Z pents 

iio The LIFE of 

pents and Snakes, that 'tis pollible to Ima- 
gine : But it being a Work that required 
great time to Finiih it, it had the fate of ma- 
ny of his Things, and remained Imperfect ; 
but as it is, it holds its place amongft the 
chiefefl Raritys of our Duke Cojimo ; as alfo 
that of an Angel, who holding one of his 
Arms in the Air, mows a mortning from 
the Shoulder to the Elbow ; that is raoft Ma- 
fterly and flrong. For Leonardo fought chief, 
ly to give a great Relievo to his Things, and 
for that Reafon, made his Grounds and Sha- 
dows as dark as poffibly he could, feeking out 
the flrongeft Blacks of all kinds ; lb that his 
Manner feemed almofc a Night, rather than a 
Shadow made by the Light of the Day. 

When ever he law any one of an odd Phifi- 
ognomy, either with itrarge Hair, or Beard, 
he would have followed him a whole Day till 
he had lb got the Idaea of him; that being 
come. Home, he would Draw him as like, as 
if he fat to him. And of this fort, there 
are many Heads, both of Men and Women ; 



many of which, I have in my Book of De- 
figns : And amongft the reft, the Head of 
Americo Vejfuci, deligned with a Coal, and is 
the Head of a fine Old Man. There is like- 
wile , that of Scararnuccia , Captain of the 
Gypjies. He begun likewife, the Story of the 
Adoration of the Three Kings, where there 
are very good Heads ; it remains Imperfecl, 
in the Houfe of Signor Amerigo Benci. 

It happened , that Lodovko SForfa , being 
made Duke of Milan, in the Year 1494. and 
he being a Prince that delighted extreamly in 
Mufick, Leonardo was fent for, to play upon 
the Lute before him. He was received with 
great Honour by the Duke, and there in his 
Prefence, be overcame all the Muiitians that 
were come from all parts to play before him. 
The Inftrument he plaid upon , being like- 
wife the Work of his own Hands, and fra- 
med in the Ihape of a Horfes Head, the beft 
part of it of Silver; but fo fhaped, that it 
yielded a fweeter and lowder Sound, than 
the ordinary Lutes. The Duke having reli- 

Z 2 fhed 

172 The L I F £ of 

ilied his Converfation, and found him mofi 
extreamly Agreeable, and of fo ready a Wit, 
that amongft other things, he was the heft 
maker of Extempore Verfes, of any of his 
Time, was pleafed with him beyond Mea- 

The fir it. Work he did for the t)uke in 
Painting , was a Nativity of our Saviour ; 
which the Duke prefented to the Emperor. 

Then, he undertook the Story of the laft. 
Supper, in the Convent of the Dominicans, 
called, Santla Maria delh Oratie, in Milan : In 
it he gave fo much Majeity and Gravity to 
the Heads of the Apoftles 5j that he was for- 
ced to leave our Saviour's Unfinilhed \ not 
being able to attain to the Expreffion of that 
divine Greatnefs, which ought to be in the 
Image of the Son of God. But one thing 
moil Admirable was by him performed in 
this Piece, which was to exprefs in the Coun- 
tenance of the Apoftles , that Concern and 
Trouble which they were in, to know which 
of .them it was that, ihould betray our Savin 

our : 


our : And one may difcern in their different 
Looks, Love, Fear, and Anger, which were 
the Paflions naturally rifing in their Breafls, 
upon the doubt railed in them by our Savi- 
our's Words : And on the other fide, mJadaAS 
Countenance , there appears fo much Falfe- 
nefs, Hatred, and Treachery, that it is won- 
derful. The whole Work befides, is in all its 
parts, a Matter piece of Incredible diligence; 
for the very Cloth of the Table, is done with 
fuch Exa&neis, that Linnen it felf, (hows 
not better nor finer. 

Tis laid, that while Leonardo was Painting 
this piece, the Prior of the Convent ufed to 
be very troubieibme to him, in preffing him 
too Indiicreetly, to make an end of it. For 
it feemed very ftrange to him, to fee Leonardo 
come fometimes, and be half a day together, 
doing nothing but look upon his Work, in 
the pofture of a Man m a Rapture ; whereas 
he thought the Work might have gone on all 
that while, as well as digging the Garden, 
or, any other Labour ufed to/ do. , And firak 

174 Me LIFE of 

ing Leonardo minded but little what he faid 
to him, he made his Complaints to the Duke, 
and that with fo much heat, that the Duke 
fent for Leonardo ; and very Gently and Dii- 
creetly, put him in mind what the Prior's 
Importunity had fo often Solicited for in 
vain. Leonardo knowing the Duke to be a 
Man of Judgment, and capable of hearing a 
Rational Account, was content to Difcourle 
with him about his Art ( which he never 
had done with the Prior. ) And told him, 
that without doubt, his Highnefs could not 
but understand, that Men of a great and ex- 
traordinary Genius in many Profeflions, but 
particularly in his, did take more pains 
while they were Conceiving their Idseas, 
than while they were Executing of them : 
And that fo it was with him, for he had yet 
two Heads to Finilh, the one of our Saviour, 
for the Model of which, he had none upon 
Earth, nor could hardly Imagine any that 
mould reprefent all that Beauty, and Divine 
Graces, which were to appear in Divinity 



Incarnated. The other of Judas, which gave 
him likewife great Trouble , it being hard 
for him to create in his Mind, a Form that 
mould exprefs the Face of one, who after fo 
many favours received from his Lord and 
Creator, mould yet have fo wicked a mind 
as to Betray him. But that for this la/1, he 
would endeavour to find fome ill looked fel- 
low or another ; and that however, when all 
things failed, he could take the Prior's face 
who had diflurbed him fo Impertinently. 
The Duke extreamly pleafed with his Hu- 
mour, fell a Laughing heartily, and told 
him, He was in the right. And the Jeft. be- 
ing come to the Prior's Ears, he was glad to 
let Leonardo alone, and mind the other Affairs 
of his Convent. And Leonardo on his fide, fini- 
{hedjudas's Head lb, as it appeal's, the Picture 
of Treachery it felf \ but for our Saviours, it 
remains to this day Imperfect. 

The Excellency of this Piece, ftruck the 
King of France with fo much Admiration^ 
when he had taken Milan, that he refolved to , 


17* The LIFE of 

have it Transported into France ; and fending 
for the abler! Ingeneers, he promifed them a 
noble Reward , and bid them fpare for no 
Colt, that mould be necefTary to that Effect, 
put it being painted upon a Stone Wall, the 
thing was thought Impracticable by any Ma- 
©hine , or Contrivance whatfoever ; and fo 
Milan remained in polTeffion of this Noble 
piece of Work. 

Leonardo Drew likewife in the fame Refe- 
ctory, the Pictures of the faid Lodovico, Duke 
of Milan, and Maximilian, his Eldefl Son, and 
of Francis the Second Son, who were fmce, 
both of them, Dukes of that place; and in- 
deed, they are mod admirable Things. 

Amongft other Projects, which Leonardos 
Working Head put the Duke upon : One was 
to make a Horfe of Bronfe, of prodigious Big- 
nefs, and upon it, to place the Dukes Statue, 
of the fame Mettle. And accordingly he be- 
gun it, but by reafon of its Vaftnefs, found 
fuch difficulty in Carting it, that it remained 
Unfiniihed. And fome do Imagine, that his 





firft defign was never to bring it to Perfe&i • 
on , as they fay, he ufed to do with mofl: 
of his Undertakings. But I think that 
they wrong him, and that the Reafon of his 
frequent Interruptions , and not Finifhing 
what he had begun , proceeded more from 
the unlimitted greatnefs of his Mind, which 
conceived things above Humane perform- 
ance, than from any unfieadinefs of his Re- 
folutions in the purfuance of them : And in- 
deed, they that have feen the Model of Clay, 
made by him for this Statue, do own, that 
there could be nothing more Great and Glo- 
rious. It remained to be leen , till Francis 
the ift. took Milan, and then among other dis- 
orders committed in the City, the Souldiers 
broke it all to pieces. 

He applyedhimfelf amongft other things,to 
a raoft particular Knowledg of the Anatomy 
of Humane Bodies, being helped in this Stu- 
dy, by Marc-Antonio de la Torre, an Excellent 
Phifitian , and profeflbr of Philofophy in 
Padoua : Who likewife made admirable ufe of 

A a the 

i 7 8 The L IF E of 

the Hand of Leonardo, having got him to De- 
fign a whole Book of Anatomy in Red Chalk. 
And there he firft Drew all the Bones and 
Joynts, then added the Tendon sand Mufcles, 
having alio made for each a particular Dif- 
courfe, in Letters written upfide-down, with 
his Left Hand, fo as they cannot be Read 
any otherwife, butbyaGlafs. A great part 
of thefe papers about Anatomy, do remain 
in the Hands of Francifco da Melzo, a Gentle- 
man of Milan, who in Leonardo's time, was a 
mod: delicate Youth, and was much beloved 
by him ; he keeps them as Sacred as Relicks, 
as h^dozs. Leonardo's Picture likewife. 

There are yet in a Milanefs Winter's hands, 
fome Writings of Leonardo, which Treat of 
Painting, and of the Way of Befigning and Co- 
louring', but Written as the reft, in Chara- 
cters made with his Left Hand, uplide-down. 
This Painter came, not long ago, to Florence 
tofeeme, being defirous to print this Work 
of Leonardos, and afterwards he went upon 
this defignto Rome ; but I have had no account 
how the thing fucceeded. . But 


But to return to Leonardo : In his Time, 
the King of France came to Milan, where Leo- 
nardo for his Reception, being defired to do 
fomething Extraordinary, made a great Lion, 
which by Springs, Walked of its felf a good 
many paces to meet the King, and then 
opening his Breaft, fhewed it full of Flower- 


Having during his ftay at Milan , made 
fome Schollars, amongft whom , was Salai, 
whom he chofe for his Beauty, and Taught 
him many Secrets of the Art, he returned 
to Florence ', there he found that Philippino, a 
famous Painter of that place, had underta- 
ken the Picture for the Great Altar of the 
Nuntiata, in the Convent of the Frati de Servi \ 
whereupon he declared,that he would willing- 
ly do fuch a piece too: which FhiUippino hearing, 
and being a very Gentile Man , yielded his 
place to Leonardo. And the Monks defired 
Leonardo, tShathe might the better attend the 
Work, to Lodg in their Convent, where 
they Entertained him with his Family. He 

A a 2 


i8o The LIFE of 

was a great while with them, before he could 
be prevailed with to Work a ftroke, but at 
lafl he made a Cartoon, and in it a Madonna, a 
Saint Ann, and Chrift ; all which Figures be- 
ing Finiihed, raifed fo much Admiration in 
the whole City, that during the time of two 
or three days, there was a continual Procef- 
fion of Men and Women, to go and iee them ; 
every one returning aftoniflied, at the Mar- 
vellous Skill of Leonardos 

For in the Madonna's Face, there was all 
that Beautiful Innocence, that might become 
a Virgin Mother of Chrift ; who having her 
Child in her Lap, mowed an humble Joy, 
for the Felicity Ihe enjoyed in fo Lovely an 
Infant, whom while (he regarded with Ten- 
dernefs, a little Saint John Baptiji, who was 
playing with a Lamb, drew the Looks of his 
Mother Saint Attn* who with a Smile, ex- 
preffed the joy of her Heart, to fee me had 
at lafla Son, that was in his Infancy, a Com- 
panion to the Sav lour of the World; But the 
Cartoon being made, ^eo/^Y/oibribokthe Work> 



and the Monks entertained Philippino again, 
who died like wife, before he could Finifh 
his; and then the Car torn was fent into 

Leonardo likewife undertook the Picture of 
Mona Lifa, Wife to Francefco Giocondo, and ha- 
ving Worked- upon it four Years together, 
left it neverthelefs Unfinifhed. It is now 
in. the King of France his Pallace in Fcntain— 
bleau ; whoever had a mind to fee how well 
Art could imitate Nature, might have been 
fatisfied in looking upon this Head, for there 
were all the Minuteft Things reprefented to 
a Miracle. The Eyes had that Brightnefs 
and Water, that is naturally in them ; and 
the Hairs of the Eyebrows, which are ex- 
tream hard to do, was fo exactly painted, 
that one might fee the Artift had made 
them to rife from the Elelh, jufl as they do 
through the Pores; fometimes thicker i and 
fometimes thinner. The Nole had all thole 
little pits , which we fee in plump frefti 
Eaces , and the Mouth was reprefented with? 


182 The LIFE of 

all its finifhings ; the Rofe Colour of the 
Lips ending by little and little, and uniting 
with the Fleih Colour of the Cheeks and 
Chin: The Neck was fo ftrong and lively, 
that through its delicate Whitenefs, one 
would think, one faw the Veins, and beat- 
ing of the Arteries. In a word, this Piece 
was rimmed at a Rate, to make any Artift 
afraid of ever attempting any thing like it. 
Tis faid befides , That he never made this 
lovely Lady fit for her Picture, but he had al- 
ways fome Body to Sing, or play upon fome 
Inftrument , with fome Buffoons to make 
Sport, and keep her in good Humour, that 
the Pi&ure might have nothing of that Pen- 
fivenefs, which very often lpoils the Painters 
whole Defign ; and accordingly this had an 
Air of Joy and Pleafantnefs, that rejoyced 
every one that law it. 

The Excellency of this, and other Works 
of this Noble Artift, made the whole City at 
laft, defirous to have fome Confiderable Piece 
of his doing, which might Adorn the Pub- 


lick, and preferve the Memory of fo great a 
Genius. Therefore the Great Council-Hall 
being newly Rebuilt, and the Architecture 
of it having been ordered by the Three fa- 
mous Architects of thole Days , Giulian of 
Saint Oallo, Simon Pollaivoli, called Chronaca, and 
Michel Angelo Buonarotti. It was by publick 
Decree of the Council, Ordered, that Leonardo 
Va Vinci fhould Paint it. Whereupon Piero 
Soderini, the then Gonfalaniero di Suflitia, agreed 
with him about it. 

Leonardo having chofen for his Painting- 
Room, a Hall of Santla Maria Novella, called 
La Sala del Papa, begun a Cartom there, and 
in it the Story of Niccolo Pmccinino, General 
to Philips Duke of Milan y there amon^fl: o- 
ther things, he Drew a Troop of Horle, that 
Attacked a Foot Company, and put them to 
the Rout; where you might lee the Rage 
and Fury of the Combatants in their Faces 3 
and all their Actions : As alio in the Horfes 
themielves, two of which Rifing an end; 
had faftned upon the Pikes, and Foot Soldiers, 


184 The LITE of 

one of which endeavouring with his Back, 
to (hove off a Horfe that preflfes upon him, 
lays hold of the Enfign, to get it out of the 
Hands of two others, who having each of 
them their Swords drawn in one Hand, 
and their other upon the Enfign, try to de- 
fend it, againft that firft; and another Old 
Soldier in a Red Cap, who feems to threaten 
with a back blow, to cut off the Hands of 
thofe two, who had laid hold of the Enfign's 
Staff, and who with the fiercefl Aptitude 
imaginable, try to keep their hold. There 
is befides, underneath the Horles Feet, two 
Figures fhortned, who being clofed, and one 
upon another, do all that is poflible, the one 
with his Arm raifed on high, and a Dagger 
in it, threatning prefent Death; and the 
other ftriving with his Arms and Legs, to 
avoid it. Great alio is the Variety of drefs, 
in which he has put his Figures with diffe- 
rent Helmets, and other Arms ; but chiefly 
his Maftery is great in the forms and Co- 
lours of his Horfes, which Leonardo always 



made more Beautiful and Mufculous, than 
any other Painter. The only Fault of this 
piece was, that thinking to Work in Oyl 
upon the Wall, he made ib grofs a Mixture 
for his firft Couch, that his Colours began to 
link in, which made him foriake the Work 
in that place. 

Leonardo was of a very great Soul, and molt 
Generous in all his Actions, not capable of 
fuffering himfelf to be leffened, as appeared. 
When going once, as he ufed to do every 
Month, to receive his Allowance from the 
State, at the Houfe of the Gonfaloniero Piero 
Soderini ', the Treafurer would have made 
him take fome of it in Rowls of Brafs Far- 
things, and other fuch Money, which he re- 
fufed : Telling the Treafurer, who took it 
ill, That he was no Farthing Painter. And 
when afterwards , Piero Soderini himlelf , let 
fall fome Words, as if Leonardo had not dealt 
well with the State in his Bargain ; he hear- 
ing of it, got together by the means of his 
Friends, all the Money he had ever received 

Bb from 

x86 IfoX IF E of 

from the Publick, and carried it to Soderim, 
who neverthelefs, refufed to accept it. 

At the Creation of Pope Leo,, the iotb. he 
went to Rome with Duke Julian , of Medici, 
who was very much delighted with all Phi- 
loibphical Entertainments, particularly thole 
of Chimiftry ; in which kind, Leonardo like- 
wile had many fancyful Experiments. Such 
as to make a thin Compofition of Wax, out 
of which he made little Animals, into which 
Blowing, they flew through the Air, as long 
£S the Wind within them lafted. 

Among other Capricious Ainufements of 
his own Art, he bellowed the pains to fit 
Wings to a live Lizard, found in the Gar- 
den of Belvedere , by the Gardener : The 
Wings were made of the Scales of other Li- 
zards , mingled with Quick-filver , which 
made a ftrange Glittering and Shaking when 
the Lizard moved , then having made him 
Horns, and a Beard, he kept him Tame in a 
Box, and uled to fright his Friends, with 
Slowing him of a ludden. 



He ufed often likewife , to take Sheeps 
Guts, and cleanfe them to that Thinnefs, that 
they would lie in the palm of his Hand : In 
another Room hard by his, he had placed a 
pair of Smiths Bellows, which putting into 
one end of the Sheeps Gut, he wouJd blow 
them up to that Bignefs, that they who were 
in the fame Room, would be fained to get up 
into a Corner, the Guts appearing as Tran- 
Iparent as Glafs. And this Leonardo ufed to lay, 
was the beft Emblem of Virtue, which while 
hid, lies in a little Room, but being once Mow- 
ed up by Fame, would fill the whole World. 
He had a Hundred of thefe Tricks. He bulled 
himfelf in the Knowledg of Perjpeffhe, and 
Looking Olajfes : He endeavoured likewife, by 
Mixtures and Diftillings, to find out the bell 
Oyls and VarniGi, to preferve Pictures after 
they were made, but in that he often fucceed- 
ed ill; as he did particularly in a Picture of a 
Madonna, with her Child in her Arms, upon 
which he had beftowed infinite pains, to pre- 
fent it to Signer Baklajfari Turin'h Datary to 

B b 2 Le s 

188 The L I F E of 

Leo the Tenth; it is now much ipoiled. 

'Tis faid, that being at Rome, and having 
undertaken a Piece for the Pope , he began pre- 
fently to fall a DifHlling of Herbs and Oyls 
for the Vernifh : Which being told to Leo the 
Tenth, he cried out, alas, This Man will 
do nothing, for he begins at the wrong end. 

There was a great Fewd between him and Mi- 
chel Angelo Bonarti, in fo much that Michel An- 
gelo left Florence upon it, and went to Rome', and 
Leonardo then alio went to France,- where he was 
extreamly well received by the King, who 
had divers things of his Doing, and amongfl 
the reft, the Cartoon of the Saint Anna, which he 
much defired might be Coloured by him. Lee- 
/wc/o,according to his Cuftom,amufed the King 
with promifes a great while, till at laft he 
fell Sick, and after many Montlis Indiipofi- 
tion, finding Death to draw near, he defired 
to be Informed of the Duties of a Good Chri- 
itian ; after which, with much mow of Re- 
pentance for his Sins, he would needs rile 
out of his Bed to, receive the Eucharift ; and 



while he was in that attempt, the King, who 
often ufed to vifit him, came in : Whereup- 
on draining to fhew his RefpecT: to the King* 
he was taken with a fainting Fit, the fore- 
runner of Death. In which, the King him- 
felf held his Head, while he Expired in the 
Arms of fo Great a Prince, as the beft time 
and place to give up a Soul fo Divine as his 

The Lofs of Leonardo, was fenfibly Regret- 
ted by all that knew him, no Artift ever ha- 
ving Honoured a Profeffion more than he did 
the Art of Painting. He added to the man- 
ner of Colouring in Oyl, which was found 
out before his Time, a certain Darknefs of 
Shadows, from whence the Moderns have 
learned to give great Relievo to their Figures- 
We have of him likewife, a moft perfect Ana- 
tomy of Men and Horfes. He would have 
Excelled in Statuary likewife, if he had plea- 
fed, for the Three fine Statues made by Fran- 
cefco Rufiic'h and placed upon the Gate of Saint 
John's Church, are of Leonardos Ordering, and! 


i jo The LIFE of 

as good for Defign and Cafting, as any Mo- 
dern ones we have. 

He had for Bifciple, Givoan Antonio Boltrajfio, 
a Milanefs, a Perlbn very understanding in 
the Art, who in the Year 1500. Painted in 
the Church of the Mifericordia at Bologna, a 
piece in Oyl ; where was our Lady, with her 
Son in her Arms , Saint John Baptifi , and 
Saint Sebaftian, naked, and he that Caufed it 
to be made. Drawn after the Life, upon his 
Knees. In it he Writ his Name, and added 
to it, Difciple of Leonardo Da Vinci ; it is a fine 

Marco Vgioni, was likewife his Schollar, who 
in Santla Maria delta Pace, Drew the Death of 
the Virgin .Mary, and the Wedding of Cana in 



The L I F E of 



Famous Florentine Painter*. 

AFter having Writ the Lives of divers 
Great Painters, who Excelled, fomeiti 
Colouring, fome in Defign, and Tome in In- 
vention, we are at laft arrived to the Life of 
Andrea del Sarto 9 a mod: Excellent Artift, in 
whom Nature and Art Concurred, to mow 
all that Painting can do , either in Dejign, 
Colouring, or Invention. And to fay truth, if 
Andrea had been of a Temper as bold as his . 

J ud S- 

i ^2 The LIFE of 

judgment was profound, he would have been 
without any Equal in his Profeffion; but a 
certain natural Timidity and Simplicity 
with which he was endowed, deprived him 
and his Works of that Strength and Boldnefs* 
which added to his other Qualities in Paint- 
ing, would have made him Sublime in every 

Andrea was Born in Florence, in the Year 
1478. his Father was a Taylor, andexercifed 
that Calling to his Dying day, from whence 
Andrea took his Name, and was called Del 

He was lir/l bound Prentice to a Goldfmith, 
and in that profeffion, his chief delight was 
Dejigning of fome thing or another of his Trade, 
being much more pleafed to do that, than 
to handle either the Hammer, or the other Tools 
belonging to it : Which being obferved by 
John Barile, a Florentine Painter, but an Ordi- 
nary one, he took the Child home with him, 
to Teach him the Art of Painting. It is 
wonderful with what Application and Plea- 



fure, Andrea followed his Defigning, though 
under ib mean a Mafler, particularly in ma- 
naging of his Colours, which he did with lb 
much Art, that all the Painters of the Town 
were Surprifed at it. Having ftay'd Three 
Years with John Barile, he feeing how great 
an Artift Andrea was like to prove, talked of 
him with Pietro di Cofimo, who at that time, 
was reputed one of the belt Painters that Flo- 
rence had. Pietro took Andrea to be his Pren- 
tice,and he had not had him long, but he con- 
ceived a great Kindnefs for him, feeing him 
fo Ardent and Induftrious , to advance his 
Skill. For Andrea fpent all his Hours of Lea- 
fure, and the Holy-days, which other young 
Men gave to their Recreation, in Defigning 
in the Great Hall , called La Sala del Papa, 
where were the Cartoons of Michel Ana eh, and 
Leonardo da Vinci, and did Out-do all the other 
youn^ Men , both Florentines and Strangers* 
who were ufed to come to the fame place. 
Amongft all thofe who in great Numbers 
ufed to frequent that Hall, Andrea made a 

Cc par. 

19+ Me L IF E if 

particular Friendfhip with Francis Bigia, cal- 
led J I. Francia, and Andrea being weary of Li- 
ving with his Mafter, who was grown very 
Old, told Francia, that he had a mind to take a 
Chamber to himfelf. Francia, who had the 
lame Defign, becaule his Mailer, Mariotto Al- 
bertinellh Ivdd given over the Trade, Concur- 
red with him, and they took a Room in the 
Piazza delGrano, dividing equally the Profit of 
what they undertook, and each putting his 
Hand to the Work, while they flayed there. 
Andrea painted in the Cloifler of Saint John 
Baptift, Twelve Stories, of the Life of Saint 
John, which he acquired fo much Reputati- 
on and Fame by, that now beginning to be 
better known , he and his Friend , took a 
new Lodging by the Convent of the Anunti- 
ata. While they were there, an Old Fryar 
of the Houle hearing of Andreas Commen- 
dations, which were in every Bodies youth, 
he confidered ■ how to have his Ends of him, 
without any great Charge ; and by this time, 
J I. Francia and he, being, of Friends, become 

Rival , 


Rivals in their ProfeiTion. The Monk told 
Andrea, that he had now an Opportunity to 
make himfelf known to the World , and 
gaining iuchEfteem, as he needed never af- 
ter to want Work ; that his friend Francia 
had offered to do the thing, but that he had 
fo much kindnefs for him, that he fhould 
have the preference ; and that he counfelled 
him not to ftand upon any Price, for the Ho- 
nour he would acquire in lb great a Work, 
would be Reward enough. Andrea, who was 
but poor Spirited, and Simple, hearing that 
Francia was mentioned for the Work, pre- 
fently clofed with the Fryar , and agreed 
with him for Ten Crowns a Story, provi- 
ded no Body elfe mould be concerned in the 

Work. . 

In a little time, he finifhed Three Stories 
of the Life of Saint Philip , the Founder of 
the Order of the Sewites ; and in one of them 
he Drew lbme Gamefters under a Tree. Who 
being reproved by Saint Philip, for Swearing 
and Blafpheming, did but Laugh at his Ad- 
C c 2 monitions, 

i?6 The LIFE of 

monitions, when on a fudden , a Thunder- 
clap Killed two of them, and frighted the 
others. In this piece, Andrea mowed what 
Variety of Invention he was capable of, for 
befides the frighted poftures of the Gamefters, 
he drew a Woman, who running out of her 
Houfe, at the Noife of the Thunder, appears, 
fo out of her felf, that nothing can be more 
Natural. And he alfo feigned a Horfe broke 
loofe at the fame Noife, who Leaping and 
Bounding in an extraordinary manner, ex- 
prefles the diforder of the Whole, with much 

Having finifhed one fide of the Cloifter, 
and finding the Work too Laborious for the 
price, he defired to be releafed of his Bargain, 
which the Fry ac was loath to do; but at lafl 
did confent,, provided Andrea painted two Sto- 
res more at his Convenience, and he would 
allow him fomething a better Rate. The 
Reputation he acquired by thefe Stories, pre- 
ien tly brought him as much Work as he 
could defire, And he made many Stories 



and Pictures of all kinds, both for publick, 
and for private Perlbns ; which it would be 
too long to Enumerate here. The profit and 
advantage he made by them, would have made 
him Live very plentifully, had he net chan- 
ged his Condition, by falling in Love with a 
young Woman , who was then Married to 
another ; but whole Husband dying foon af- 
ter , Ihe became Andreas Wife. From that 
time forward, he was very uneafie, both in 
his Fortune and Humour, for befides the En- 
cumbrance of a Married Life, he was often 
difturbed with Jealoufie, and his Wifes ill 
Humours ; but to return to his Works. 

The Company of the Scalzo, for whom he 
had made his firft Work , of the Story of 
Saint John Baptift-, being defirous to have him 
finnli the whole Life, engaged him a new : 
He therefore made them two Stories more of 
the fame Subject In the firft, Sainton is 
Preaching to the Multitude, and fhows in the 
Burnt hew of his perfon, ... the Aufterity of 
his Life, but particularly , the Ah*: of his 


^S The LIFE of 

Countenance, is full of Spirit and 
Zeal, the Variety of the Auditorys attenti- 
on, is no lefs well ExprefTed , by the afto- 
nifliment at his Dodrine. But he Ihowed 
much more Skill in the fecond Story, where 
Saint John is Baptizing a great Multitude of 
People, fome whereof are putting off their 
Clothes, others Naked in the Water, and all 
mowing in their Aptitudes, a marvellous de- 
fire of being cleanfed from their Sins; every 
Figure being mod perfectly mannaged , ib 
that though it be in Chiaro Scuro, theyfeem 
to be of Marble. 'Tis not to be omitted, that 
while Andrea was about this piece, there came 
fome prints of Mart Barer, out of which 
Andrea took fome Figures, and fitted them 
for his manner ; which though it is often 
done by good Matters, yet fome took occafi 
on to think, th^t Andrea was wanting in the 
point of Invention. 

He madelikewife for a Merchant, a Friend 
of his, who often Traded into France with 
Piclures; one of our Saviour, Dead, and 



fome Angels about him, in fad companionate 
Poftures; and this piece did fo generally 
pleafe every Body,- that Andrea was prevailed 
upon to have it Cut, and Printed at Rome, by 
Agofiino Vinffiano , a good Graver : But the 
thing having mifcarried in his Hands, fo as 
to lofe much of its Beauty, he could never be 
perfuaded afterwards, to luffer any of his Pi- 
ctures to be Graved. The Original its felf, 
was Sold to the King of France, who was fo 
pleafed with it, that he Bel poke many things 
befides, of his Doing ; which with the per- 
fuanon of fome Friends, made Andrea refolve 
to go for France. 

The King, Francis the Firft, having- taken 
Order for his Journey, and advanced Money 
to him at Florence ; He was no fooner arrived 
at Court, but he Experienced that Princes 
Liberality, before ever he began to Work. The 
firil: Picture he made, was of the Dophin? 
who was then in Swadling Clothes* being not 
above two Months Old ; the King liked it fo 
well, that he preiented him Three Hundred 

Crowns > 

2oo The LIFE of 

Crowns in Gold. Next, he made the Picture 
of Charity, which was by that Prince fo Va- 
lued, that he Ordered a penfion for Andrea, 
promiiing him any thing, provided he would 
iky at Court ; being much taken with the 
Quicknefs of his Work, and the Eafinefs of 
his Humour. He went on therefore, doing 
many pieces for the King and Court. When 
one day as he was Working upon a St. Jerom, 
for the Queen Mother, he received Letters 
from his Wife from Florence, which made him 
refolve upon his Return thither ; pretending 
fome Domeftick Affairs, and promifing the 
King not only to come back, but alfo to bring 
his Wife with him, and a choice Collection 
of Pictures and Sculptures. The King truft- 
ing him, gave him Money for all thofe things, 
and Andrea took his Oath upon the Bible, to 
Return in a few Months. 

Being arrived at Florence, he enjoyed his fine 
Wife and his Friends, and for feveral Months 
gave himfelf up wholly to pleafure : At laft, 
having fpent his own Money, and the Kings 



too, he was neverthelefs refolved to go back 
for France \ but the Entreaties and Tears of 
his Wife, had more power over him, than his 
Honour or Oath , and fo he Settled a new 
in Florence , being fallen from a very Flou- 
rilhing Condition, to a very Mean one. The 
King finding himfelf Deceived , grew ex- 
tream Angry, and for many Years, would 
not look upon a Florentine Painter with a good 
Eye ; Threatning , that if ever Andrea del 
Sarto fell into his Hands, he would ufe him as 
his Fault deferved. 

While he was away, the Company of the 
Scalzo, had hired to Francia their Cloifter, 
and he had Finifhed in it, two Stories : But 
now hearing Andrea was come back, they fet 
him to Work again, and he painted four Sto- 
ries more. In the firft, is Saint John taken 
Prifoner, and brought before Herod. In the 
fecond, is the Supper, and Dancing of Hero- 
dias. In the third, is the Decolation of Saint 
John, in. which, the figure of the Hangman 
half Naked, is admirably Defigned. In the 

D d fourth, 

202 7 be L I F £ of 

fourth, Herodias prefents the Head of Saint 
John Baptift to her Mother \ and in this, there 
are fome Figures in pofture of Admiration^ 
which are Excellent. And thefe four Stories 
have been, a long time the Study, and as I 
may fay, the School of the young Painters in 
Florence, both Natives and Strangers. 

In the Year 152;. the Plague being in Flo- 
rence, and near it Andrea, by the help of An- 
tonio Brancacci, retired to Mugello, and there 
was let to Work by the Nuns, of the Order 
of the CamaUoU, in their Church of Saint 
Peter. He had carried his Wife and Children 
with him, and the Nuns made fo much of 
his Wife, that Andre* rcfolved to do his befl 
to Oblige them : He therefore painted a Piece 
of our Saviour* Bead, and the Virgin Mary, 
Saint John the Evangelift, and Mary Magdalen, 
Lamenting about the Dead Body : As alfo 
Saint Peter, and Saint Paul, looking on. In 
all which, the Aptitudes are ftrangely well 
Execu£ed,and the whole hnifhed to a Wonder- 
ful degree. And indeed, this Picture has 



made that Nunnery more Famous, than all 
its other Ornaments, though it be a very 
Magnificent Monafiry. 

The Plague being over, and Andrea return- 
ed to Florence, it happened that Frederick the 
Second , Duke of Montova , paffed through 
Florence, and faw there in the Palace of Medi- 
cis, the Picture of Pope Leo the Tenth, in the 
middle of Cardinal Oulian Medicis, who was 
then Clement the Seventh, and Cardinal Rofii, 
The piece was done by Raphael, and an Ad- 
mirable thing in its kind : Whereupon the 
Duke took his time while he was at Rome, 
and Begged it of Pope Clement the 7th. who very 
gracioufly granted it to him,and lent Order to 
Otlavian of Medicis, to deliver it to the Duke's 
Order. Otlavian, who was a great Lover of all 
things of Art, was much troubled, that Flo- 
rence mould lofe fuch a Rarity, but however 
not daring to difobey the Pope's Commands* 
he made Anfwer, that the Duke Ihould have 
it ; but defired he would be pleafed to give 
him time to make a New Frame to it, the 
D d 2 Frame 

204 The Lit E of 

Frame being Old, and out of Falhion. But 
he immediately fent for Andrea, and telling, 
him how the Cafe flood, faid, He knew no 
Remedy, but to Copy moft diligently that 
of Raphael, and fend the Copy to the Duke ; 
and that too,muft be done with all the Secrefie 
imaginable. Andrea fell prefently to Work, 
and was fo Exact and Careful in his Copy, 
that Otlavian himfelf, who underflood Paint- 
ing very well, could hardly tell one from the 
other. The Painter having Counterfeited 
fome Mould Spots, which were in the Origi- 
nal, to the greateft Exa&nefs that was poffi- 
ble: Having. therefore hid the Original, the 
Copy was- fent to the Duke, who was ex- 
treamly fatisfied with it, and fo far from dis- 
covering the Cheat, that Gulio Romano, who 
was Raphael's Schollar, and then Working for 
the Duke, was Deceived as well as himfelf; 
and would have perfifted in that Opinion, to 
lus Dying day, if fome Years after, Georgia 
Vajfari , who was a Creature of Oft avian of 
Medicis , and had leen Andrew del Sarto . copy 



the Picture : Going to Mantua , and being 
there courteously Entertained by Oiulio, had 
not undeceived him. For amongft other Pi- 
ctures, Oiulio fhowing him this as a piece of 
Raphael's, he told him he was mifkken : To 
which Oiulio reply ed , How, miftaken ! As 
if I did not remember the very Strokes that 
I my felf Wrought in ibme part of it. To 
which Vafari replied, He was flill miftaken \ 
and to convince him, {hewed him a little 
Mark on the Back, which was made there on 
purpofe by Andrea , becaufe when the two 
Pictures were together, they were apt to be 
miftaken one for the other. Oiulio having 
feen the Mark, was Aftonifhed, but laid at 
the fame time, I Value it neverthelefs, but 
rather the more; it being a much rarer thing, 
to have a Great Painter imitate the manner of 
another fo Exactly, than to do great Things 
of his own. 

About this time, Mejfer Baldo Magni of Prato, 
having a mind to have a good Picture for the 
Church of the Madonna del Career e : Amongft 


20* rkeLIFEef 

other Painters who were mentioned to him, 
Andrea was the Man he moil inclined too, but 
one Nicolo Soggi Santonino , having many 
Friends, Mejjer Baido was over perluaded to 
let him have the Doing of it, though he had 
lent for Andrea : Who being arrived, this A7- 
coh was £b Impudent, as to offer to lay a Wa- 
ger , that he would out-do Andrea in any 
SubjecT:. Andrea provoked beyond Meafure, 
though naturally poor Spirited enough, Re- 
plied, That he had a Prentice with him, who 
had not been long a Painter, but he would 
lay of his fide againft Nicolo, icorning to En- 
gage himfelf in the Conteft, as being like to 
reap little Honour by the Victory ; and fo 
returned to Florence. In the mean time, one 
of the Servile Fathers, in giving leave to a 
Lady, to permute a Vow fhe had made, had 
obliged her to caufe a Madonna to be made, 
in a part of their Convent : And the Father 
having the difpofing of the Money, fpoke to 
Andrea to undertake it, though the price was 
but fmall. He, who never flood for Money* 



laid, he would. And Drew our Lady, with 
her Son in her Arms, and a Saint Jofeph, who 
leaning upon a Sack, looks upon a Book, that 
is open before him. This Work, both for De- 
fign, Grace, Colouring, and Relievo, (hows him 
to have furpaffed all former Painters to this 
day; and is now vifited by Strangers, under 
the famous Name of the Madonna del Sacco, 'tis 
upon the Door of the Cloifter of the Annunti- 
ate, as you go into the Church. 

There wanted one Story to the Cloifter, of 
the Company of the Scalzo, therefore Andrea, 
who had much, greatned his Manner, by ob- 
ierving the Figures that Michel Angelo had be- 
gun, and alnioft Finiihed, for the Sacrifti of 
Saint Laurence, put a Hand to this laft Story, 
which was the Birth of Saint John Baptift y 
the Figures in it are of a greater Relievo, than 
any he ever made before. And particularly, 
there is the figure of a Woman, who carries 
the New Born Babe to the Bed-fide, where 
Saint Elizabtth receives it ; that is an Admi- 
rable %ure. The figure of Zachariah like- 

2o8 We LIFE *f- 

wife, who Writes his Sons Name upon a piece 
of Paper, which he holds upon his Knee ; is 
a moft Lively thing. As likewife, the figure 
of an Old Woman, who fitting by, leems to 
Laugh at the Child-bearing of Elizabeth, who 
was alio an Old Woman. 

About this time, John Baptijia delta Palla, ha- 
ving made an excellent Collection of Sculp- 
tures and Pictures, to Adorn an Appartment 
for Francis the firft, which mould be the Rich- 
eft of that kind, that could be had, ipared no 
Coll: to get the bell things that were in Flo- 
rence y and amongft the reft, he fet Jndrea to 
Work, giving him hopes, that it would be a 
means to make him recover the Kin^s favour 
and return to his Service. 

Andrea therefore made two Pictures, the one 
the Sacrifice of Abraham, the Aptitudes and 
Colouring of which are Admirable ; and par- 
ticularly a Paflage, or Landskip, moft exqui- 
fitely done, and proper to the Story. The 
other, the Picture of Charity, with Three 
little Boys about her; but neither of thefe 



Pictures came to the King's Hands, for Bap- 
tifra delta Palla, being taken prifoner. Philip p 
Strozzi bought the firfr, and prefented it to 
Mphonfo Davilos , Marquis Del Ouajlo , who 
placed it in the Iile of Sicilia, hard by Naples, 
in a Pallace that he had there. And the other 
was Bought of Andrea'?, Wife, after her Hui- 
band's Death , by Dominlco Contl 7 a Painter \ 
who Sold it again to Nicola Antenori, who keeps 
it as a Rare piece, as indeed it is. 

About this time, Offavian of Medicis, fee- 
ing how much Andrea had mended his Man- 
ner of late, was defirous to have a piece of 
his Doing. And Andrea who was much Ob • 
liged to him for many Favours, made him a 
Madonna, with her little Son upon her Knees, 
who turns his Head towards a Saint John 
Baptift, who is held by his Mother Saint Eli- 
zabeth y the whole Wrought with Incredible 
Art and Diligence. The Picture being fmi- 
fhed, and brought to Off avian of Medicis-, he 
liked it extreamly ; but it Being the time of 
the Siege of Florence, and he being taken up 

E e with 

210 Ibe LIFE of 

with other Thoughts, defired Andrea to di- 
fpofe of it to whom he would : To which An- 
dre* made no other Anfwer, then that it was 
made for him, and that it mould be his, or 
no Bodies; and accordingly refufed all the 
Offers, and Entreaties that were made to him 
by other people, though Off avian had defired 
him to Sell it, and keep the Money for him- 

The Siege being over, and the Family of 
Medic is Settled in the Government , Andrea 
carried his Picture once more to Signior Ofta- 
viano, who then took it with Joy ; and ha- 
ving given him twice the Value of it, thank- 
ed him over and above : And this Picture is 
flill in the Hands of his Lady. 

During the Siege of Florence, fome of the 
chief Commanders that were in the Cities 
pay, having run away with the Moneys they 
had received, Order was given, to have them 
Painted upon the Front of the Pallace of the 
Podefia, and Andrea was Ipoke to do it : He 
excufed himfelf in publick, and gave the do- 


ing of it to one of his Prentices, called, Bernar- 
do del Buda ; but he privately every day went 
in at a Hole made in the Wall, and came out 
again by Night, fo that the Work was by him 
fo Finhhed, that the Perfons defigned to be 
Reprefented, feemedtobe there Alive. But 
afterwards, by Order of the Government, 
they were Wiped out, as well as fome Emi- 
nent Citizens , who in that time had been 
declared Rebels, and painted in the fame man_ 
ner by Andrea. 

After the Siege, the Plague was difcovered 
in the City, and Andrea, whether out of Ap- 
prehenfion of it, or by fome other Irregula- 
rity of Life, fell Sick ; where being forfaken 
by his own Wife, for fear of the plague, he 
Died no Body knows how , and was Buried 
with little Ceremony, in the Church of the 
Serviles-, hard by his Houle. 

He was but Two and Forty Years Old, and 
he continually had fo Improved himfelf to 
that Time, that it is to be thought, if he had 
Lived longer, he had fUll added fome new 

Ee 2 i m _ 

2i2 The L I F E of 

Improvement to the Art. He wanted no- 
thing, but to have Worked fome time in 
Rome , to have made his Manner, which was 
Sweet and Free, Noble and Great, by the 
viewing of the Antiquities that are there ', 
the Study of which alone, is that which gives 
Richnefs of Invention in Story, and Exact- 
nefs in Figures. But the Reafon why he 
wanted that Accomplifhment, was, becaufe 
while he was there, it was when Raphael had 
already made many Excellent Schollars , 
young Men, of a freQier Date than Andrea, 
who found that it would coft him a terrible 
deal of pains, to keep pace with them ; there- 
fore being naturally poor Spirited, he thought 
it beft to go back to Florence, where his Works 
were already Admired , and Valued , as in- 
deed they deferved, though he in his Life- 
time took fo little for them ; that they who 
have fmce Sold any of them, have had three 
times the Value of their firft Coft. 

After his death, his Defigns were in the 
Hands of Vominico Conti, one of his Schollars, 



though none of the beft ; he had a great ma- 
ny, but all did not attain to lb great a degree 
of Skill, as fome did. The beft were Jacopa 
da Puntormo, Andrea Ignazzella, who has painted 
a Country Houfe, fome where by Paris-, much 
after Andrea's manner. II folos meo Pier Fran- 
cifeo di Jacopi di Sandra, Franc efco Salviatiy and 
Oeorgio Vafari , the Author of thefe Lives> 
though he Lived but a very little while with 
him : Jacopo del Conte Nannoccio, who is ftill in 

Dominico Conti y out of Gratitude, caufed a 
Marble Effigies of his Mafter, to be fet up 
againft a Pillar, in the Church of the Serviks* 
with this Infcription : 

Admirabilis Ingenii Pitlori ac veteribus illis Omnium 
iudicio Comparand*)} Dominicus Contes Difcipulcs 
pro Labor i bus in fe Infiituendo fufceptis grati ani~ 
mo pofuit. 

Vixit Annos XLIII. Ob. A. MDXXX. 



The L I F E of 




Vainter and Architeffi. 

RAphael was Born in Vrbino, a known Ci- 
ty of Italy, upon a Good-Friday, in the 
Year 1485. his Father's Name was Giovanni 
de Santi, a Painter of no very great Reputa- 
tion , but a Judicious and Difcreet Man : 
And, who having himfelf been Entred in 
an ill Way , and by a Mafter of the Old 
Manner, had yet fo much Knowledg, as to 
direct his Son in a better ; finding him a very 


2i£ The LIFE of 

forward Child , and much enclined to the 
Art, in lb much, that even under his Infti- 
tution, he had lb far profited, as to be very 
ufeful to his Father, in divers pieces that he 
Wrought in the State of Vrbin. But he as a 
kind Father, being very ienfible that Raphael 
could never attain to any great Skill by his 
Teaching, relblved to find him out a better 
Matter ; and pitched upon Pietro Perugino, who 
had then the Reputation of one of the moft 
Excellent Mailers of his Time. Pietro accep- 
ted the offer made him of Raphael for his 
Schollar : And as foon as he law the great 
Beginnings he had already in the Art of De~ 
figning, and withal, obferved the iweetneis 
of his Temper, and the modefty of his Be- 
haviour, he made that Judgment of him, 
which fince has been confirmed by Effedls 
'Tis a thing worth Obferving, that Raphael 
ftudying the Manner of Pietro Perugino, imi- 
tated it fo well in every thing , that his 
pieces could not be known from his Mailers ; 
as appears to this day, by a piece in Oyl, which 



he did for Madonna Magdalena de Glioddi. In 
Saint Francefco of Perugia, 'tis an AfTumption 
of our Lady, and our Saviour putting the 
Crown upon her Head ; the Twelve Apoftles 
are round about the Sepulcher, admiring the 
Coeleftial Glory fhe is Adorned with. 'Tis 
done with great Diligence, and they who 
are not very Skilful in knowing of Manners, 
would eafily believe, it were of Pietro Peru* 
gino's doing; and yet without doubt, it is of 
Raphael's. Who painted likewife, two pieces 
in Citta di CafteUo, the one a Crucifix, in the 
Dominican Church ', in which, if he had not 
Writ his Name, there is no Body that would 
believe it Raphael's, but rather Pietro Perugim'ss 
The other a Marriage of our Ladies, in which 
one may particularly obferve, how Raphael- 
gains upon Perugino*, and begins to Surpais 
him. In this Piece, there is a Temple drawn- 
with fb delicate a Profpective, that it is Won- 
derful to obferve, what Difficulties and-Nice-- 
ties of Art, he mowed in it. 

F f Having- 

2i 8 Ibe L IF E of 

Having by this time, attained to fome Re- 
putation, he was called by his Friend Pintu- 
richio, who had undertaken the Painting of 
the Library of the Vomo, at Sienna, at the de- 
fire of Pope Pius the Second, who was Native 
of that place ; and Pinturichio, kn owing Ra- 
phael to be a moft Excellent Defigner, was 
glad of his Affiftance, who accordingly made 
divers of the Cartoons for that Work, but did 
not continue, becaufe he had a mind to go fco 
Florence, to fee the Cartoon of Leonardo da Vinci, 
which he had made for the great Pallace Hall ) 
which had made fuch a Noife in the World , 
that all the Lovers of Art , came far and near 
to admire it. Particularly, Michel Angela, ha- 
ving alfo at the lame time, made fome Naked 
Figures in Competition with Leonardo, which 
were no lefs admirable. Being come to Florence y 
and having admired thofe Works as Divine, 
the City pleafed him likewife fo well, that he 
refolved to Live in it for fome time. 

There he prefently contracted Friendship, 
not only with all the young Painters of his 



Time, but alfo with many of the moft Emi- 
nent Citizens, by whom he was highly Ho- 
noured and Carefled, particularly by Taddeo 
Tadde'h who Lodged him in his Houfe, and 
made him conftantly Eat at his Table : And 
Raphael, who was not to be overcome in Cour- 
tefie, made two pieces for him, which have 
fomething more of the Way of Perugino, than 
of that which he Studied fince. He was In- 
timate likewife with Lorenzo Nafi, for whom 
he made an Excellent Madonna ; but it, 
in the Fall of his Houfe, which was Over- 
thrown by an Earthquake, was all broken 
to pieces ; neverthelefs, the pieces being Ra- 
ked out of the Ruines, were put together as 
well as might be, and are yet preferved by 
Baptifta Naji> a great Lover of the Art, and 
Son and Heir to the faid Lorenzo. 

After this, Raphael's Father and Mother 
being both I>ead, he was forced to go to Vr- 
bino, to look after his Domeftick Affairs ; and 
there he did fome pieces for Ouidobaldo da Mm- 
tefeltro) who was then Captain General of the 

F f 1 Florets 

220 The L I F E of 

Florentines ; and amongft the reft, a Picture 
of our Saviour in the Garden, and the three 
Apoftles afieep at a diftance : This piece is lb 
perfectly Finilhed, that no Miniature can be 
better. It was given by Signora Leonora, the 
Duke of Vrbins Wife, to Don Petro Quirini, and 
Don Paulo Juftinidni , Venetians and Hermites of 
the Camaldd'h and was by them placed as a 
Relick in the chief Room of the faid Hermi- 

From Vrbin he went to Perugia, where he 
Worked for the Nuns of Saint Antonino, and 
made them a Picture, where according to the 
Simplicity of thofe Ladies, he made our Sa- 
viour Cloathed, fitting in his Mothers Lap • 
and on one fide of our Lady, Saint Peter, Saint 
Paul , Saint Cecily , and Saint Katherine \ to 
thofe two Virgins, he gave the fweeteft Coun- 
tenances, with the fined Drefs for their 
Heads, a thing Rare in thole Days. The 
whole Work is very much Efteemed, it be- 
ing one of the firft in which Raphael began 
to change his Manner, fince his being at Flo- 



rence,, fo that now it differed as much from 
his Mailer Perugino's, as if it had been two 
diftind Hands. After fome Hay at Perugia, 
he returned to Florence again, and there fell 
to Studying very hard, both by the Old 
Paintings of Mofaccio, and by the New one s 
ef Leonardo, and Michel Angelo. He Contra- 
cted a moft particular Friendfhip with Fra. 
Bartholomeo di San Marco, having his Colouring 
in great Efteem, and endeavouring to Imi- 
tate it; and in Exchange, he Taught Fra. 
Bartholomeo, the manner of Working things 
in Profpe&ive, to which the Good Father was 
an abfolute Stranger : But his Study was again 
Interruptedly the Importunity of fome great 
Perfons of Perugia, fo that he was forced to 
return to that place. He carried with him 
* Cartoon, which he had done at Florence, at the 
Solicitation of the Signora Jtalanta Baglioni. 
The Story was the Burial of our Saviour. In 
this piece, Raphael has admirably Exprefled 
the Grief of our Lady , who is fallen in a 
Swound, by the Dead Corps ; and that of 


222 The LIFE of 

Saint John, who with his Hands croffed in 
each other, and looks down with the faddeft 
Countenance imaginable. And indeed, who 
ever fhall well confider the Diligence, Care, 
and Affection, with which this piece is Fini- 
ihed, mufl be in a kind of Ravifhment at the 
Air of the Figures, the Beauty of the Drape- 
ry ', and above all, a certain Sweetnefs that is 
fpread all through the Work. 

There being about this time, many Artifts 
of all kinds Employed at Rome, by Pope GiuUo 
the Second, Bramanto of Vrb/no, amongfl: the 
reft being there, Writ to Raphael, to whom 
he was fomething a Kin, to come to Rome> for 
that he had fpoke to the Pope of him. At his 
arrival, being very well received by the Pope* 
he found him bufied in Embellifhing his Pa- 
lace , and particularly, in Painting his beft 
Rooms in Frefco, by the Hands of the mofl: 
famous Mailers of that Time ; there was one 
Room quite finilhed by Pietro della France fca ; 
Luca di Cortona, had very much forwarded a 
Facciata, or Frontice-piece of another. And 



Bon Pietro della Gafta, Abbot of Saint Clement of 
Arezzo, had begun another Story. Likewife 
Bramantino of Milan* had made fome Figures* 
which being done after the Life, were ex- 
treamly Valued. Raphael therefore took to 
himfelf the Chamber of the Segnatura , and 
there begun a Story of the Divines agreeing, 
Philofophy and Aftrologie, with Divinity; 
and in it are drawn all the Antient Wife 
MenandPhilofophers, difputingin different 
Manners. By themfelves there are fome 
Aftrologers , who have made Figures upon 
Tables, and fend them to the four Evange- 
lifts, by certain Angels. But amongft the 
reft, is the Figure of Diogenes, lying all along 
upon the Stairs, with his Diih in his Hand > 
which is a very Contemplative figure, and 
much to be Commended, as well as the figures 
of the Aftrologers, whole Aptitude in Work- 
ing, with their Compares upon Tables, is 
admirable. There is among other Figures, 
one of a Young Man, who opening his Arms, 
and bending his Head on one fide, feems to 


224 2& LIFE of 

be in the a£fc of admiring ; it is the Picture 
of Frederick the Second , Duke of Mantoua-, 
who was then in Rome. Raphael's own Picture 
is alfo there, next to Zoroafier% who holds a 
Caeleflial Globe in.his Hand \ and the Mathe- 
matician, who feems fo attentive with his 
Compares, is the Picture of Bramante ,. and 
fo like him, that he feems alive. 

He adorned his Work with a mofl: delicate 
Profpedtive , and iuch Variety of fine Fi- 
gures, of fo delicate a Manner , that Pope 
Julio caufed all that had been done by other 
Matters, both Old and Modern, to be quite 
Demolished, to make room for more of his. 
But Raphael ipared lbme of the Work of Gio~ 
vOftiy Antonio Sodom*, of Vercelli, and made ufe 
of the Compartiments and Grotesks of it : 
And in the four Rounds, he made four Fi- 
gures , of fome Signification to the Stories 
under them, and turned each of them to. its 
proper Story, 

In the firft, is a Woman, which is made^ 
tareprefent Knowledge and on each Hand a- 



Goddefs Cybele ; fhe fits in a Chair, and is 
Reprefented with many Breafts, with which 
the Antients painted their Diana Polimafta. 
Her Clothes are of four Colours, to Repre- 
fent the four Elements ; from her Head to 
her Wafte, is the Fire-Colour, and from her 
Wafte downwards , the three others , the 
Water being the laft ; and there are by her 
fome young Children, yery finely done. 

In another Round towards the Window, 
which looks upon Belvedere, is Reprefented 
Poefiey in the perfon of Polybimnia, Crowned 
with Laurel, and with an Air more than 
Mortal: She directs her Looks to Heaven, 
having two Youths by her, who by their Vi- 
vacity, feem ready to receive her Commands ; 
underneath this, was the Story of Parnaffus. 

In the third Round, which is over the 
Story, where the Do&ors of the Church are 
ordering the Mafs ; there is reprefented Di- 
vinity with Books , and other Ornaments 
about her, and likewife two Boys. 

Gg In 

226 The L IF B. of 

In the fourth Round, is Juftice with he* 
Ifallances, and a Sword, with two Boys, as 
all the others. 

He made likewifein the four Corners of the 
Yault, or Ceiling, four Stories, but of leffer 
Figures, yet extreamly well Defigned, and 
delicately Coloured ', and they are Adam's Eat- 
ing the forbidden Fruit, which looks towards 
the Story of Divinity underneath ; near that 
of AJirologie, there is that Art, which places 
the fixed Stars and Planets, all in their pror 
per Situation. Over the Picture of Pcejte, 
there is the Story of Mar Jim, who is tied to 
a- Tree, and Flead by Apollo \ and over, the if/- 
fiory of the giving the Ciyif and, Canonical 
Laws,, there is the Story of Solomons Judgments 
when he Ordered the Child to be cut in two. 

Having finifhed the Vault, or Ceiling, we 
muftnow lay, what, were the Stories painted 

In that part which looks towards Belvedere y 
he drew the Mount -Fainajfiu y with the Foun- 
tain Helicon, and. upon the Mountain made a 



Wood of Laurels, fo Green and Lively, that 
the very trembling of the Leaves by the gen- 
tle breath of Air ftirring about them, is al- 
moft perceptible ; and in the Air, there flie 
about an infinite number of Cupids , who 
gather Branches of Laurel, and having form- 
ed them into Garlands and Wreaths, fcatter 
them all about the Hill, which is filled with 
Poets in different poftures; fome Sitting* 
fome Standing, fome Writing, fome Sing* 
ing, and others Talking together by pairs, 
or more, as the Painter thought fit to fort 
them. But the Figures are all fo Lively 
and their Actions fo proper and Natu- 
ral , that one would really think , the 
Workman Infpired with fome of that Divi- 
nity which the Poets lay claim too. Thefe 
Figures were all done after fome Antient 
Statues, or Models) and the Modern Poets, 
who are there Reprelented, and were then 
Alive, and are all done after the Life. There 
on one Side, you fee Ovid* Virgil^ Emius* 77* 
bullus-i Catullus, Propertius, and Homer by him- 

jfelf, Singing of Veffes, and having one at 

Gg 2 his 

223 The LIFE of 

his Feet, who Writes them down. Then in 
a Gruppo by themfelves , are Apollo , and the 
Nine Mufes, with fuch Beauty in the Air of 
their Heads, thaft one may eafily know them 
to be the Divinities of Verfe. On the other 
Side, is the Learned Sappio, the moft Divine 
Dante, Gentle Pearch, and Amarous Boccaccio, 
with a great many more of the Moderns ; the 
whole Work being extreamly well finimed. 

On another Wall in the fame Room, he 
drew our Saviour and the Virgin Mary, Saint 
John Baptift, the Apoftles, the Evangelifts and 
Martyrs, all upon Clouds in the Air, and 
above over them, God the Father, who fends 
the Holy Ghofl over a great number of Saints 
of all forts. There are likewife , the four 
Doctors of the Church, with Domenick Francis, 
Thomas Aquinas , Bonaventure Scot us, Nicolas di 
Lira Savanarola , and a great many Divines 
drawn, many after the Life : In the Air are 
four Boys, who hold the four Evangelifts. 
The Excellency of this Picture is great, for 
as the Figures are all Sitting, and in the Air 



the Shortnings are very Artificial; fo as they 
Hide away from the Eye by degrees, juft as 
if they were of true Relievo. Their Drapery 
likewife is very Curious , both in the Fold- 
ings and Livelinefs of Colours : The Air of 
our Saviour's Head is admirable, having in 
it all that Mildnefs and Pity, which was pro- 
per to the Divinity, made Man. 

And indeed, it was Raphael's particular Ta - 
lent, to give the proper Air to his Heads, as 
he has done here all along ; making our Ladies 
Countenance Sweet and Gentle, the Apoftles 
Grave, but Honeft and Plain, the Martyrs 
Zealous, and full of Faith : But particular- 
ly, he mowed great Art in the Heads of the 
Doctors of the Church, who difputing two 
by two, or three by three, mow in their 
Countenances great Curiofity , and in their 
Actions an endeavour of difcovering the truth 
of all their Doubts. 

On the other fide of the Room by the Win- 
dows, he drew Jufiiman, giving his Laws to 
the Do&ors , who correct them ; and over 


23o The LIFE of 

him, Temperances Force, and Prudence ; and on 
the other hand he drew the Pope , giving the 
Decretals, or Cannon Law ; and in the perfon of 
the Pope , he drew Pope Julio, after the Life ; as 
alio Jean, Cardinal of Medicis, who was after- 
wards Pope Leo the Tenth ; Anthony Cardinal Vi- 
tnonte, and Cardinal Alexander Farneze y who was 
alfo Pope, by the Name of Paul the Third. The 
■Pop* remained extreamly fatisfied with this 
Work ; and that nothing might be wanting 
to fet it out, he fent for Francis Giovanni di Vero- 
na, who was famous for Carving in Wood, to 
make the Frames ; who not only did that, 
but alfo adorn'd the Room with moil dilicate 
Doors and Seats, which gave him great Fa- 
vour with the Pope \ and indeed, in that fort 
of Work, there was never any that exceeded 
this Fra. Giovanni \ as may be feen to this day 
in a Sacrifia in Verona, the place of his Birth, in 
the Church of Santla Maria in Organo. 

But to return to Raphael : His Skill and Re- 
putation increafed fo together, that the Pope 
would needs have him undertake a fecond 



Chamber towards the Sala Grande ', but firft, he 
drew the Pope's own Pi&ure at length, lb 
ftrong and lively, that it aftonifhed all thole 
who law it ; and it is to this day prelerv'd in 
Santla Maria del Popolo, together with a Nativi- 
ty of his doing \ both thefe Pictures are lhowed 
only upon Holy-days. 

All this while, though Raphael had acquir'd 
very great fame, and though he was continu- 
ally ftudying the beft pieces of Antiquity in 
Rome, yet he had not hitherto given any Great- 
nefs or Majefty to his Figures- ; his Manner, 
though foft, yet being mean and low in ex- 
preffing great things. 

But it happened about this time, that Mi- 
chael Angelo, who was painting the Pope's Chap- 
pel, was forced to fly to Florence, for an Occafi- 
on that (hall be mentioned in his Life, and 
left with Bramante the Key oft he Chappel ; who> 
being an Intimate Friend of Raphaels,, mowed 
him the whole Work, that he might compre- 
hend Michael Angers Manner ; which he did 
fo fhrongly, that immediately he went and' 


232 The L I F fi of 

did over again the Figure of the Prophet Ifaiah, 
which he had already finiihed in the Church 
of Saint Auftin, and gave it that noble, great 
Manner which mod: of the Works of Michael 
Angelo have ; who being come back to Rome , 
and having ihen this Alteration of Raphael's 
Manner, imagined prefently, that Bramante 
had been falfe to him in his abfence, to oblige 
his Friend Raphael. 

About this time, Auguflin Chigi, a very Rich 
Merchant of Sienna, but Living in Rome, and a 
great Admirer and Encourager of Art/fts 9 madc 
Raphael draw that famous Galatea in a Sea- 
Char, environed with Tritons and Sea-Nymphs, 
and Gods \ as is yet to be feen in his Pallace of 
Tranflevere : and being extreamly fatisfied with 
that Work, which has an uni mi table fweet- 
nefs and noblenefs in it, he got him to under- 
take a Chappel for him in the Church of Sanffa 
Maria della Face, on the Right Hand ; and in 
it Raphael drew fome Prophets and Sybils ; which 
are particularly efteemed among all the things 
he ever did j but he had then feen Michael An- 



getis Chappel, and had taken to that magnifi- 
cent new way ', and in it likewife he (howed 
a mofl dilicate and perfect Colouring, as appears 
in the Women and Children ; all which con- 
curring together, made this Work be valued 
for the beft he ever did, and that from which 
he drew his greater! Fame, both Dead and 

After this, he went on with the Rooms of 
the Pope's Pallace ; where he painted the Sto- 
ry of a Miracle that happened at Orvietoto a 
Prieft, who being Incredulous in the point of 
Tranfubfiantiatiotiy had the Hofi difTolved into 
Blood before him, as he Celebrated Mafs : In 
the per fon of the Prieft, whofe Face is all red 
with Shame and Confufion, you may fee the 
fright lb ftrange an Accident put him in, 
and the very trembling of his Hands is fenfi- 
ble to the Lookers on ; round about him, Ra- 
phael drew many Figures, fome Serving Mafs, 
others at a diftance, in different Poftures and 
Aptitudes upon the hearing the ftrangenefs 
of the thing ', and amongft the reft, there is a 

H h Wo- 

234 The LIFE of 

Woman with a Child in her Arms, who be- 
ing told the thing by another, expreffes great 
wonder in her Looks and Action, with a lin- 
gular Womanifh Behaviour and Grace : On 
the other hand he feigned Pope Julius to be 
prefent at this Miracle, and drew him, and 
Cardinal St. Georgio, with many others of his 
Court \ and in the empty part of a Window, 
which was in his way, he painted a Stair-Cafe, 
with different Figures upon it ; fo that it 
united with the reft of the Story, and made it 
one intlre piece. And in truth, it muft be 
laid of Raphael, that in the Invention and 
Compofition of any Story whatfoever, he ex- 
ceeded all the Painters of his Time, and had a 
clear and ftrong Imagination, as he mowed in 
the lame Room, in a Story over againft this : 
it is, when Saint Peter is kept by Herod's Soul- 
diers in the Prifon ; where the Architecture is 
fo judicious and various, and yet fo proper for 
the place, that one muft confefs his Genius to 
be admirable, in adapting his Inventions to 
the truth of the Hiftory, according to what 



is delivered us in Writing ; as here, the dark- 
nefs and horrour of thePrifon, the deep Sleep 
that opprefles the Souldiers, the fplendour of 
the Angel at his appearance, by which the Pri- 
fon is fo enlightned, that all that is in it is 
diftinguifhable ; there are all Beauties proper 
to the Story ; as alfo, when Saint Peter, freed 
from his Chains, goes out of the Prifon in the 
company of the Angel ; for Saint Peters Coun- 
tenance, is that of a Man in a Dream ; and in 
the Guards without, there is a Surprize be- 
twixt Sleeping and Waking, while 'one of 
them with a Torch in his hand, endeavours to 
waken the reft ; and by that means, gives the 
neceflary Light to the Piece, to fee the Ar- 
mour and Pofture of the Souldiers ; and where 
that Light doth not fall, the Painter hath 
moft ingenioufly made ufe of the ^foo/z : all 
which being likewife painted within a Win- 
dow, the Facciata is ftill the more obfcure ; 
and thereby it happens, that when any one 
looks upon the ?i8ure 9 the Light (hikes him 
H h i i n 

2 3 6 the LITE of 

in the Face, and the true Light from without 
makes, as it were, a conteft with the painted 
Light within, and makes you fee the very 
fmoak of the Torch, and the fplendour of the 
Angefs Appearance fo ftrong, that you can 
hardly perfwade your felf it is a thing paint- 
ed ; the fhadows of the Armour-, the reflexion 
and warmth of the other Lights being paint- 
ed with fuch a proper Gloominefs, that it 
rnuft be owned, he is the Mafter of Matters in 
Colouring and Invention. 

He drew likewife another Story about the 
attempt that Heliodorm made to Rob the Tem- 
ple of the Jews, in the Time of the High 
Prieft Qni<u ; where the furious a&ion of an 
inyifible Horfeman, waited upon by two on 
Foot ; and ftriking Heliodorm from his Horfe, 
is remarkable ; for his Followers not feeing 
thofethat ftrike him, and wondering at his 
fall, are fo furprized, that they let flip out of 
their hands the Treafures and Riches of the 
Temph, which they had already begun to plun- 
$$£J at a diftance 3 is the holy Prieft Onim up- 


on his knees, with his Eyes and Hands lifted 
up to Heaven, expreffing in his Countenance 
the Joy, mingled with Grief and Companion, 
that that action of Violence, and the fudden 
Relief fent from Heaven, had produced in 
him ; there are befides, many of the multi- 
tude, who being got upon the Bales of the 
Pillars, and holding by them, are in very un- 
eafie poftures, ftrongly attentive to the Event 
of the Bufinefs, with various Expreffions 
of Aftonifliment and Fear in their Counte- 

This Work was fo wonderful in all its 
parts, that to this day, the Cartoons are had in 
the greater! efteem imaginable : and Signior 
Francifco Maffini, a Gentleman of Cefena, who 
without any Matter, by his own Induftay, 
has attained to a great perfection in Painting • 
has amongft his rare Collection of De/igns and 
Relievoes, fome Pieces of this Cartoon, and keeps. 
them with the true Veneration due to liicb. 

Relicks- », .. « . v . 

While Raphael was thus, incouraged by 

238 Ihe L I F E of 

thePope,and aftonifhing on his fide the whole 
World with the noble productions of his Pen- 
cil* Death took away Oiulim the Second* the 
great Patron of all Arts : but Fortune ■, though 
envious in that, yet was kind in his Succeflbr 
Leo the Tenth , who ordered all the projects of 
his Predeeeffor to be continued, being himfelf, 
both by Birth and Inclination, a moft Magni- 
ficent Prince : accordingly, Raphael purfuing 
his work, drew on another fide of the fame 
Room, the coming of Attila to Rome, and his 
being met at the foot of Monte Mario by Leo 
the Third* then Tope* who oblig'd him to re- 
turn back again only by the Gravity of his 
Afpe6t. In this place Raphael drew Saint Pe- 
ter and Saint Paul in the Air* with Swords 
drawn in their hands to defend the Church&nd 
they have in their Countenances and Actions 
that Cceleftial Ardour with which Heaven in- 
fpires its Saints in defending the true Reli- 
gion : Attila* who is upon a dilicate black 
Horfe, with white Feet, and a Star in his 
Forehead, lifts up his Eyes, as frighted with 



the Vifion, and feems to turn away from it, 
and deflre to be gone ; in his Company are ma- 
ny Horfemen, whofe Horles are mofi: rarely 
done, particularly, a Spotted Gennet, which is 
mounted by a Figure, who (hows all the Na- 
ked that may be, being Armed in lome places 
with Armour that refembles the Scales of 
Fijhes, which he took from Trajan's Column, 
where there are people Armed after this Fa- 
Jhion. He drew likewife, after the Life, lome 
Mace-Bearers that wait upon the Pope; and 
with them, the whole Court of the Cardinals, 
and the Grooms that lead the Pope's Horfe, upon 
which he is Cloathed in his Pontifical Habits ; 
and under the perfon of the Pope, he has Re- 
prefented the then prefent Pontife Leo the 
Tenth, with many of his Courtiers \ all after the 
Life* And indeed, we may fay of all other 
Pitlures, that they are PiUures ; but of Rapha- 
el's, that they are Alive ; the very Flejh feems 
to be loft and tremble at the touch, and is full 
of fpirit and feeling : fb that his Reputation 


240 The LIFE of 

in this particular, is beyond that of all that 
ever were before, or fince. 

There is a Picture of the lame Pope, with Car- 
dinal Giulian of Medicis, and Cardinal R0J/1, where 
the Figures ieem to be abfolutely round • and 
out of the Piece, the Velvet and Damask which 
the Pc^<? wears/have both the lbftnefsand (hill- 
ing which is proper to them, and the Ermines 
fo natural, that they feem real ; in a word, 
there feems to be no Colours there, but all 
real Silk and Gold ; there is upon the Table a 
Parchment painted in Miniature, and a Silver 
Bell ; which are both finifhed beyond expref- 
fion : but amongft the reft, there is one of the 
Balls of the Pope's Chair, which being guilded ? 
reflects the Light upon the Pope's Shoulders 
and the Room, as if it were the real Sun Beams '- 
In a word, 'tis impoffible for any Mafter to go 
beyond this. For this Piece the Pope prefent- 
ed him richly ; and it is yet to be feen in Flo- 
rence-, amongft that Duke's Collections. 

Raphael finding himfelf thus highly Re- 
warded and Efieemed, and having a generous 



Spirit of his own, built a Pallace to prefer ve 
his Memory to Pofterity, it is in Borgo a Novo ; 
and Bramante, one of the beft ArchiteBs in his 
Time, made the Model of it in Caft 

About this time Albert Durer, a famous Fle- 
mish fainter-, and an admirable Ingraver of 
Prints >fent his Picture to Raphael; it was wove 
upon a Cloth, fo as to be fcen alike on both 
fides the Cloth, he having taken the Lights 
from the Cloth, and the Shadows from fome 
Water Colours which that Cloth was wrought 
with. The Picture was very much admired 
by Raphael ; who in Return, lent Albert feve- 
ral of his beft Drawings ; and being defirous 
to try Albert's way of Graving in plates of 
Brafs, he made Marc Antonio of Bologna apply 
himfelf entirely to that Art ; in which he 
proved fo excellent, that afterwards he was 
Raphael's chief Graver; and moil of the things 
we have of that kind, ofRaphaefs, are done by 
him ; who indeed furpaflfed Albert Durer him- 
felf ; as appear'd, when he counterfeited the 

I i Story 

242 The LIFE of 

Story of the Vajfion oiChrift, done by Albert, and 
put Albert's Name to it, and it fold fo well 
for the true one, that Albert Durer, to prevent 
the Cheat, was fain to make a Journey from 
Flanders to Venice, and there complain to the 
Government, Mark Antonio being at that time Re- 
Jident there ; and yet he only obtained, that 
his Markfhould not be counterfeited ; lea- 
ving liberty for any body to Imitate the reft, 
that could. 

Mark Antonio's beft things after Raphael, are, 
Lucretia killing her felf, the Judgment of Pari*, 
the Majjfacre of the Innocents the Rape of HeUen, 
SanBa Felicita boy I'd in Oyl, and her Children 
Beheaded about her ; Neptune, with little Sto- 
ries out of the Enerde about him ', a Venus Im- 
brac'd by a Cupid ; God Bleffing the Seed of 
Abraham, where is a Maid with the two Chil- 
dren ; the famous Galatea otGhigi ; and in a 
word, moft of the things painted by him in 
the Pope's Pallace. There were likewife two 
other famous Gravers that did many of his 



things y to mt, Marco di Ravenna, ScAgojliano Vine- 
tiano, who marked his Prints with this Mark* 
A. V. as the other did with Raphaefs,th.u.s, R.S. 
After this, Raphael made for the Monks of 
Santla Maria delta Spafmo, in Palermo, a Picture 
of our Saviour's carrying his Crofs ; which is 
held as a moft miraculous piece : in it the 
Rage of his Crucifiers is expreft in their Acti- 
ons and Countenances y and our Saviour lying 
under the Load of his Crofs, all bath'd in Sweat 
and Blood, looks moft paflionately upon the 
three Maries, who are in Tears by him ; there 
is likewife Saint Veronica y who with much 
Charity and Compaffion hold out her hands 
to wipe his Face with a clean Linnen Cloth ; 
and behind, the Work is filled with Men on 
Horfeback, and on Foot, who croud out of 
the Gates ofjerufalem to go and fee the Execu- 
tion. This piece^ was like to have mifcarry- 
ed, going home ; for a moft horrid Storm 
having broke the Ship in which it was, upon 
a Rock, and all the Men and Goods periming, 
this Picture being in a Cafe, was carried by 

I i 2 the 

244 The LIFE of 

the Winds & Seas as far as the Coaft of Genoa, 
and there taken up and opened, and being ad- 
mired, was by publick Order difpos'd of, it 
having not at all been fpoil'd, though it had 
lain fo long in Salt Water ; the noife of this 
Accident came at laft to the Ears of the 
Monks for whom the Piffure was made ) and 
with much ado, by the Pope's Interceffion, 
they obtained from the State of Genoa an Or- 
der to have it reftored, paying firfT: the 
Charges of thofe that had taken it up ; which 
they did largely, and fo fent it to Sea a fecond 
time \ where it had better Fortune, and arri- 
ved fafe in Palermo, and is no lefs famous there 
than Mount Mtna is in that Kingdom. 

Amidfl: thefe Works for private perfons, 
Raphael negle&ed not to carry on the painting 
of the Pope's Pallace, and in a little time he fi - 
nithed the Chamber call'd, Di Tone Borgia ; in 
which he had made on every fide a Story : in 
one was the burning of the Borgo Vecchio> in 
the Time of Saint Leo the Fourth ; where he 
puts it out with his Bleffing alone, though all 



means had been tryed to quench it before, but 
in vain. In this Story the Painter has drawn 
all the Horrour of a Fire furprizing people 
unprepared ', fome Women there are, who 
while they are carrying Water to quench the 
Fire, are, by the Storm of Wind which then 
blew, all difordered in their Hair and Cloths, 
and many of them blinded with Smoak, fo as 
not to know one another, or fee what they 
are doing. In another place, there is drawn 
an Old Decrepit Man upon the Back of a 
Young Man his Son, juft as Virgil defcribes 
JEn<£<ts a.n& Anchifes ; and in the Figure of the 
Young Man, is to be feen the Strength of his 
Body as well as the Courage of his Mind> & the 
difficulty with which he ftruggles in holding 
the Old, Helplefs Sick Man, and avoiding at 
the fame time the Flames and Ruine that are 
about him ; on the other fide, upon the top 
of a Houfe all on Fire, is a Lady naked in 
her Smock, and holding a Child in her Arms, 
which fhe is trying to throw it to one below, 


24 £ The L I F E $f 

who holds out his Arms and a Blanket to re- 
ceive the Child \ and in both thefe Figures, 
the fear of the Flames-, mingled with that con- 
cern for their tender Infant, are rarely ex- 
prefTed ; nor is lefs admirable the Figure of 
a Woman, who being all in an undrefs and 
diforder, frighted in her looks, drives before 
her two or three little Children, whom (he 
beats, to make them make haft to avoid the 
fury of the fire : there are fome other Wo- 
men, who falling down on their knees before 
St. Leo, feem to begg of him to flop the fury 
of the fire \ as he doth. The other Story is 
of the fame St. Leo \ where the Painter has 
drawn the Port of Othia, furpriz'd by a Navy 
of Turks, who had a defign to make the Pope 
Prifoner : there you may fee the Chriftians af- 
failing the Turk's Fleet, now got to Sea, and 
taking feveral Ships, the Captives of which are 
Landed and let a Shore, being dragg*d by their 
Beards into the prefence of St. Leo, who is re- 
prefented by Leo the Tenth in his Pontifical Ha- 
bit s, between Cardinal Bibiena and Cardinal Julian 



ofMedkvs, who was afterwards ClerHent the 

The other two Stories are, the Sacred Inunlli- 
on of King Francis the Firft, of France, by this 
Pote Leo the Tenth and the Crowning of him by 
the fame ; and in them Raphael has drawn 
moft of the Courtiers of both Princes, after the 
Life, and according to the Drefs they were 
then in \ juft by the King is a Child upon his 
Knees, holding the Regal Crown, which is 
Hyppolito of Medicis ; who was fince Cardinal* 
and VicechanceUour of the Church. 

The Cceling of this Room was already paint- 
ed by the hand of Pietro Perugino, Raphael's hia- 
fier ', he forbore therefore, Out of refpecl to 
him, to make any Alterations in it, but fuf- 
fered it to remain entire as it was. 'Twas 
hard for Raphael to do all thefe things by his 
own hands ; and therefore he was forced to 
imploy divers excellentWorkmen in all kinds; 
and he had Defigners, not only over all it alj, 
but as far as Gr<ece ', that nothing might be 


24.8 7 be L I F E of 

wanting that was any ways uleful or Orna- 
mental to his Profeflion. 

After this, he painted a Hall for the Pope ; 
where having drawn in Terrefta ibme Figures 
of Saints and Apoftles, hecaufed the reft of 
the Room to be painted by Giovanni di Vdine 
his Schollar ; whole Genius lay particularly 
in drawing all forts of Animals, beyond any 
Painter of his Time \ he therefore drew all 
thofe the Pope had at that time ; as, a Cameleon, 
a Civet-Cat-, an Elephant, Ibme Lyons, Monkeys, 
Parrots, adorning the Intervals with Grottesks 
of all kinds. 

He adorned the Pope's Pallace, not only 
with Painting, but alio with Architecture ; 
having, after the death of Bramante, given a 
noble Defign for the great Stair-Cafe and Cham- 
bers, with much more Order and Ornament 
than Bramante had invented, following in that 
the Magnificent Humour of that Pope, who 
fpared no Cof> of that kind ; therefore Rapha- 
el chofe out divers able Men in moft Profeffi- 
ons, and affign'd them their Tasks, fetting 



Guiovanni di Vdine over the Grotesks and Stucco 
Work j Giul'io Romano had the overfeeing of the 
Figures, which were made moft of them by 
Giovan Francefco il Bologna, Perino del Vaga, Pel- 
legrino da Modona, Vincenjio da San Gimiano, Poli- 
doroCaravagio, and many others; and for the 
Carvings, he made Gian Barile do all thole 
over the Doors, and on the Ceiling. 

He made many Piclures for Foreigners, and 
particularly, fome for the King of France \ a- 
mongft which, that of the Battle of Saint Mi- 
chael and the Devil, is efteemeda mod won- 
derful piece : in it he drew a great burnt 
Rock for the Center of the Earth, out of the 
cleft of which came flames of Fire and Brim- 
ftone ; and in the perfon of Lucifer, all fcorch'd 
in his Members, you might perceive all the 
Rage, Pride, and Spight that could be in a Soul 
that had loft Empire and Peace, and was con- 
demned to eternal pains and anguiQi : the 
Figure of St. Michael, on the contray, is made 
with a Coeleftial Air, which exprefles the 

K k force 

25 o The LIFE of 

force with which he has overthrow n Lucifer 
at his feet ; the K ing of France fent Raphael a 
noble Reward for this piece. 

Raphael was in his Nature of a very amorous 
Complexion ', for which reafon, he took much 
pleafure in drawing fome of his Miftrefles, 
and other handfome Women, being always at 
the Ladies Command ; which made many of 
his Friends likewife have Complacency's for 
him in that kind fomething extraordinary \ 
as that of Signior Auguftin Chighi, his great 
Friend ; who having obtain'd of Raphael to 
paint the Lodge in his Pallace,he found that he 
did not much mind the Work, by reafon of a 
Miftreis he there had, to whom he was con- 
tinually going ; whereupon he made means 
to the Lady, and with much ado, obtain'd of 
her to come and flay at his Pallace, and keep 
Raphael company whil'ft he work'd : by which 
means the Lodge was finiihed to his Mind : he 
made all the Cartoons with his own hand, and 
coloured himfelf the beft part of the Figures ; 
in the Vault or Ceiling he drew a Banquet of 



the Gods and GoddefTes ; and in them one may 
fee many Habits taken from the Antients ; 
and he made Giovanni da Vdine make a Border 
of Flowers-, Leaves, and Fruits in Feftoons, molt 
extreamly fine. 

After this, the Pope gave order for the ri- 
cheft Hangings of Silk and Gold that it was 
poffible to make, and ordered them to be made 
at Antwerp ; to which place the Cartoons were 
fent by Raphael, all drawn and coloured by his 
own hand ; and by the Artifis there lb exqui- 
fitely imitated, that the Silk and Gold feem 
Colours, and not Weaving ; and indeed, it is 
an aftonilhing thing to fee how the very Hair 
and Beards of the Figures are as diilincf and 
fine as the Life it felf \ and the Houles, Land- 
skips, Profpeclrives, all as Natural and Regu- 
lar as any Painter can make them : this Work 
cofl the Pope ieventy thoufand Crowns, and is 
ftill prefer ved in the Papal Chappel. Much a- 
bout this time likewife he began the great 
Hall above Stairs, where the Victories of 
Confi antine are painted. 

K k 1 Hav- 

252 Tbe LIFE of 

Having thus defcribed moft of the Works 
of this excellent Painter ; before I come to 
other particulars of his Life or Death, I 
think it may not be amifs, to fay fomething 
of his manner in painting. 

At firft, he imitated the manner of his 
Mafter Pietro Perugino, and mended it much, 
both for Colouring, Invention, and DeJ/gn; but 
coming afterwards to fee the manner of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci, whofe Heads, both of Men and 
Women had all the Life and Spirit imagina- 
ble, and whofe Figures had a particular Grace 
and Motion, not expreffed by any before him; 
Raphael became aflonithed, and refolved to 
fludy Leonardo's manner ', which he did with 
infinite pains and diligence ; and yet, in fome 
things, was forc't- to come ihort of Leonardo - ? 
for though in the Opinion of many, he out 
did him in a certain Sweetnefs and Natural Fa- 
cility, yet in ftrong Conceit, and a certain greats 
nefs of Befign, he could not reach him ; nor 
indeed, hardly any Painter could come up to 



Leonardo in that point ; but Raphael came nea- 
rer!: him, particularly in the Graces of his 
Colouring. This firft manner of his, which 
he learn'd from his Mafter Pietro Perugino, be- 
ing little, mean, and of fmall Defign, became 
in time a great trouble to him ; for it hinder- 
ed him from Learning to draw Naked Figures, 
and gave him great difficulty in all Shorten- 
ings, and fuchlike Excellencies of the Art,, 
which he faw fo rarely performed by Micha- 
el Angelo Buonarotl ; and indeed, any one befides 
himfelf would almoft have defpaired, as per- 
ceiving, that all this while he had thrown a- 
way his time, and mud: now turn Schollar a~ 
gain, as he did with admirable Patience and 
Ingenuity, ftudying Night and Day to arrive 
to Michael Angela's way ; which was full of 
difficulty in all its parts, and this in a time 
when his Hand and Head were almofl let- 
tied upon another way , which he had. 
learn't in his Youth, when Impreffions are 

When Raphael began firft to change his 


254 ^ L I F E of 

manner, he had never ftudied Nudities any 
otherwiie than jufl to do them a little by the 
Life, which with the grace he gave his Pi- 
ctures, did pritty well ', but he was an utter 
Stranger to Anatomy, which teaches the lying 
of the Mujcks under the Skin, and how they 
iwell and (horten in aclion, according to the 
different poftures of the peribn ; alio, the 
manner of their Infertion, and the Concate- 
nation of the Bones and Joynts \ all which he 
ftudied with great application, and became 
excellent in the knowledge of whatever 
might make a rare fainter \ yet perceiving too, 
that in this part of painting , he mould 
be forc't to come ftiort of Michael Ange- 
h \ and knowing, that it is not Naked Figures 
alone, that give Reputation to a great fainter ; 
but, that Invention and Difpofition were 
things that did enoble the Art as much as any 
thing, he apply ed himfelf to them with great 
fuccefs, enriching his Compofitions with great 
variety of Profpeclives, and new ways of dref- 



fing his Figures ; adding to this, mo/1 beauti- 
ful Heads of Men, Women, and Children ; 
and in a word, not being able to come up to 
Michael Angelo in one thing, he relblved to be 
fo univerfal in all the other parts of Paint- 
ing, that few,' or none mould be able to com- 
pare with him : he was not a little beholding 
to Fra. Bartholomeo di San Marco \ who having 
a good way of Painting, well founded in V)e- 
fign, and accompanied with a pleafant Colour- 
ing ; though fometimes he ufed too ftrong Sha- 
dows to give his Figures a greater Relievo , Ra~ 
phael took of his manner fo much, both for 
De/ign and Colour ing, as he thought fit ; and out 
of it, and fome other felecT: Obfervations upon 
other Matters, he made tohimfelf a Manner; 
which was ever after call'd, Raphael's Manner ; 
and the perfection of which appear'd in thole 
Sybils and Prophets which he made in the Church 
of La Pace : and if Raphael had /luck to this 
Manner of his, and had not /lill fought to 
make it appear greater by the/lrength of Na- 
ked Figures, it had been often more agreeable* 

Sfi Ihe L IF E of 

and of greater Reputation to him ; for even 
thole Nudities of his in the Chamber of Torre 
Borgia, are not exatt ', nor do thole which were 
made by him in the Pallace of Auguflin Chigi in 
Tranft'evere, pleafe and fatisfie a Judicious Eye, 
becaufe they want that Grace and Sweetnefs 
which was the proper Chara&er of Raphael • 
and befides, he only Defigned them, but left 
the Colouring to others ; which Err our of his 
heat laft perceiving, refolved to dofbmething 
that fhould be all his own ; and accordingly, 
did the Transfiguration ofChrift in the Church of 
S. Pietro Montorio ; in which are all the parts 
of good painting • and if he had not, out of 
a Humour, made ule of Printers Black in the 
Shadowings, which of its own Nature, be- 
comes flill blacker and blacker, and fpoiles 
the other Colours with which it is mingled, 
I believe that Piece would have been frelhand 
fine to this day \ but that has fo blackened it, 
that it leems as it were Tinto. 

I have made this Difcourfe at the end of 
Raphael's Life, to fhow how much Care, Stu- 


dy, and Diligence he us'd, to attain to an Ex- 
cellency ', and likewife, to give, as it were, an 
Advertisement to other Painters, that they 
{hould not go about to force Nature in thole 
things to which it doth not ftrongly incline 
them, lead they loofe their Labour, and be 
forc't at laft todefift with (name. 

Now to return to the Life of Raphael. Lie 
had a great Intimacy with Cardinal Bibiena ; 
who was continually folliciting of him to 
Marry, and had a Niece of his ready to be- 
ftow upon him : Raphael at firfl put him 
off gently, taking three or four Years time 
to confider of it ; at the end of which, the 
Cardinal ftill folliciting him about it, 
and claiming, as it were, a promife from 
him ; he finding himfelf ingaged in fome 
meafure, and loath to difoblige the CardL 
nal, accepted of his proffered Neece ; but 
fo ftill> as not to come to an abfolute Con- 
clufion ; for befides the averfion he had na- 
turally to a Married Life, he had befides, 
L 1 ano- 

-58 The L IF £ of 

another defign, which made him feek all de^ 
lays poffible from entring into lb ftrong 
an Ingagement : The thing was this ; he 
having Served the - Pope a great while, and 
having a very confiderable Summ due to 
him from the COURT, he had divers 
hints given him, that as foon as the Sulk 
Grande he was now painting (fiou-ld be 
Finiffied, the Pope would recompence his 
Fains and extraordinary Capacity with a 
Gardinars CAP: It being certain, that the 
Pope defigned a numerous Creation of Car*- 
dlnah : amongft whom- were Tome of. lefs 
Merit than Raphael: In this hope there- 
fore, keeping Marriage at a diftance, and 
following fecretly other amorous Delights* 
it happenened, that he committed once luck 
an Excefs that way, that he came Home 
with a pritty high* Feaver ', the Phyfiti- 
ans being called, and he concealing the 
true Caufe of his Diftemper , which they 
feared, was an Inflammation , they ordered 
him tp be Let Blood ; whereas they mould 



have given him Cordials and Refiauratives > 
the effect was, that he founded away ; and 
immediately finding himfelf decay , he 
took care to fend away his Miflrefs out 
of his Houfe, and provided handfomely for 
her ; and then making his WIL L, he 
left all he had to Giulio Romano his Schollar, 
and to Gian Francefeo Florentino, otherwife cal- 
led // Fattor> together with a certain Prieft: 
of Vrbino, who was A-kin to him ; mak- 
ing Signior Baltafar da Pefcia the Pope's Da- 
tary Executor of this his laft Will and Te- 
ftament : after this, having Confeffed him- 
felf very Penitently, and received the Sa- 
crament, he yielded up the Ghoft on a Good 
Fryday, in the Seven and Thirtieth Year 
of his Age , the fame day he was Born 


The Pope, and all the Court were much con- 
cerned for his Lofs ; and indeed, we may 
Tay, that it was the greater! that the Art 
of Painting ever received ; it having been 
ever fince at a Stand, and rather in danger 
L 1 2 of 

260 Ihe LIFE of 

of declining, than in hopes of advancing to 
a greater Perfection : He was fo Courteous 
and Obliging to all thole of his Art, that if 
at any time any one had begg'd a Defign 
of him , whether he were his Acquain- 
tance or no, he would leave all to ierve 
him ; which made him be fo Beloved , 
that when he went to Courts he was ordi- 
narily attended by fifty, or threefcore of 
the beft Artifts of all kinds who followed 
him, to fhow their Refpe&s. And one 
thing he brought to pafs, which I think, 
was never done before nor fince ; which 
was, that all thofe Painters? and other Ar- 
tifls in great Number, who worked under 
him, and in concurrence with one another, 
laid afide all Envy and Jealoufie, and lived 
in the greater!: Union and Concord ima- 
ginable ; which proceeded from nothing fo 
much as from that admirable Example of 
Sweetnefs and Mildnefs that Raphael fet 
them. In a word, he was not only the 



Wonder, but the Delight of all Rome, who 
thought his Vertue beyond Reward, as it 
was above all Imitation. He lived Great, 
died Bewailed, and Regretted by every one. 

The Famous Cardinal Bembo made this 
Epitaph for him. 

Raphaeli fantlio Vrbinati Pitlor ', eminentijjimo ve- 
tei unique JEmuk, cujios fpir antes prope Imagines, fi 
contemplere nature, atque Artes fedus facile infpez- 
em. Julii fecundi, & Leonid decimi Pontificates 
maximu, Pitlur<e t/y Architecture Operibus gloriam 
auxit. A. XXXVII Integer integros, quo die 
natm eft, eo ejje defiit, Otlavo Idii Aprilis, Ann 1 ) 

Ille hie eft Raphael tiriiuit quo lofpite vinci, 
Rerum magna Parens & onoriente mori. 


GIORGIONE, Sec. 2*3 

The LIFE of 




A Bout the fame time that Florence grew fo 
Famous by the Works of Leonardo 
Da Vinci, Venice received no fmall Ornament 
from a Native of that Countrey, to wit > Giorgio 
ofcCdftelftanco, who had the Sir-Name of/G/or- 
gione given him. He was Bred up in Venice, 
an&ftrft applyed himfelf to Mufick:, for which 


2S4 The LIFE of 

he had ib rare a Talent, that both for Singing 
and Playing upon the Lute, he was Famous, 
and always invited to all Confbrts, and Pub- 
lick Mufick- Meetings, After this, he applyed 
himielf to learn to Lefign ; in which Nature 
gave him a great Facility ; and he in requi- 
tal, lludied her molt, Dejigning every thine: 
after the Life it fell" ; which made him not 
only out-do the two Bellini's then in Vogue, 
but ftand in Competition with thofe Tufcan 
Painters, that were the Authors of the Mo- 
dern way of Painting ; lbme things of Leonardo 
da Vinci's doing being come to his Hands, 
wherein there was a great Strength, particu- 
larly, an admirable Management of the Sha- 
dowings ; he was extreamly delighted with 
that manner, never forfaking it, but endea- 
vouring to imitate and improve it in all his 
Oyl-Paintings \ from whence it proceeded, that 
all his Pieces had a Spirit and Life, never ex- 
preffed before in that Countrey ; and ad- 
ding to that a Beautiful Colouring', he 


GIORGIONE, &c. 265 

he was far beyond all the Lombard Pain- 

His firft Application was to Portraits, hi 
which he fucceededadmirably;and particular- 
ly in that of the Great Go nfalvo, whom he drew 
by the Life, in Armour, when he came to 
make a Vint to Agoftino Barberigo, the Doge of 
Venice ; this Picture £0 pleafed the Great Gon- 
falvo, that he took it with him into Spain, 
Many more of his Pictures are lpread over all 

He was no lefs excellent in Painting in 
Frefco ; and amongft the reft,there is the Front 
of the Pallace of Soranzo in the Piazza of San 
Baolo ; in which, befides many Stories done 
after the ordinary manner of Frefco Painting- 
there is one done in Oyl upon the Wall af- 
ter the Frefco manner, which is very Angu- 
lar ; it has prefer ved it felf again ft all the 
Wind and Rain, and is freih to this day , 
though it be expofed to the South Winds ; 
which in moift Countries, luch as Venice is, 

M m are 

266 Tbe L IF E of 

are the moft terrible Deftroyers of Frefco 
Work, that can be. 

About the Year 1 504,there happened agreat 
I?ire near the -Rialto, in which, amongft other 
Buildings, the Fondaco? or Trading-Houfe of 
the German Nation, was quite burnt to the 
Ground : the Senate in a fhort time Re- 
built it more Magnificent and Convenient 
than before ; and Giorgione^ Fame being great, 
he was ordered to paint it in Frefco on the 
Outfide. This Building flanding in the mod 
frequented and populous part of the City 5 
Giorgione thought he could not choofe, a better 
place to .(how the Excellency of his Art ; and 
therefore without confin ing himfelf to* any 
Set Story, he drew luch Figures as Ihould beft 
lute with that Defign ; . therefore you fee in . 
lbnie places the Figures of Women, in others, ., 
thoie of Youths in. various Aptitudes, with 
Lyons Heads, Angels, Cupids,.and other fuch. 
things by them ; the meaning of which, none 
to this day could even underfland, but the Fi- 
gures are admirable in their kind... 

G 10 KG ION E, See. 2 6 7 

The befl piece of Ojl-painting of bis doing, 
is of our Saviour carrying his Oofs ; where 
there is a Jew that pulls him ; that is a moft 
fingalar Figure : this Piece is in the Church 
of San Rovo \ and by the great Devotion that 
People (how to it, it is thought to do Mira- 
cles. He worked much out of Venice \ as, at 
Cafielfranco, and in the Trivifano ; and many 
Pieces of his were bought up, and carried a- 
broad to Forraign Parts, to £how that Tufcany 
alone had not the prize of Painting, but that 
other parts near the Alps, had their Share in 
that noble Art. 

About this time, Andrea di Verrochio being em- 
ployed to make the Famous Horfe of Bronve, 
ibme Sculptors took occafion to praiie Sculpture 
beyond Painting, becaufe that one might walk 
round a piece of Sculpture, and view it on all 
fides with delight, whereas a piece of Painting 
could never reprefent but one fide of a Body at 
once : Giorgione having heard them out, faid, 
that they were extreamly miftaken, and that 
he would undertake to do a Figure in Painting, 
Mm 2 which 

2£8 IB LIFE of: 

which Ihould (how the Fore and Hind Parts, 
and the two, fides, without being put to the 
trouble of going round about it, as Sculptors 
are to view a Statue. This feem'd an Under- 
taking beyond belief ;.but he thus brought it 
to pais. 

Hedrewthe Piclureof a Young Man naked, 
ifcowing his Back and Shoulders, and having 
at his- Feet a Fountain of clear Water, in which 
there appeared by reflection, all his fore parts; 
on the left fide of him he placed a bright fhin- 
ing Armour, which he feemed to have put off, 
and in the glittering of that, all the left Side 
was iken in Forfile -, on his right Side he plac'd 
a, great Lookino^Glafs, which, reprefented his 
right flam, by its reflexion, 

This Piece was look'd upon as a thing of a 
rare Invention, and feems to give the prize to 
Paint ingy which can in one view reprefent 
much more than Sculpture can. 

He drew, amongft other Pictures, that of 
the famous Catharina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprw^ 
by whom the State of Venice long enjoyed, and. 

GIORGIONE, Sec. 269 

do to this day lay claim to that Crown. That 
Piece is in the Pallace ofCornaro. 

Giorgione being lb rare a Painter -, and fo great 
a Mufitian, could not choofe but be Amorous ; 
he fell moft extreamly in Love with a Young 
Beauty, who was no lefs charmed with him y 
and while they were in the heat of their En- 
joyments, the Plague being then at Venice,, (he 
fell ill of it, but not thinking it was that Dif- 
eafe, admitted Giorgione to her Bed, where the 
Infection feizing him, they both died ; he was 
but thirty four years old, when this fatal Ac- 
cident took him from his Friends, who could 
hardly comfort themfelves for his lofs. He 
left two excellent Scollars, to witiSebaftiano Vi- 
netiano., who was afterwards Prate del Piombo at 
Rome \ and Titian da Ladore ; who not only 
equalled his Matter, but furpaiTed him infi- 



The LIFE of 

Michael A ngelo 



Fainter , Sculptor, and Architect. 

LOdowco di Lionardo Buonarotti SimQne^ was a 
Gentleman of the Countrey about Flo~ 
rence, and the Father of Michael Angeh* 
who was born in the Year 1474 y being not 
very rich, and his other Children being put 
out Apprentices to Trades* he defigned' bis El- 
deft for a Schollar, and accordinly, lent him to< 
School y but the Child ufed to play Truant 

aften^ . 

272 Tfo LITE of 

often, and fpend his time in Dejigning, finding 
in himfelf a mod: powerful Inclination that 
wav ; which his Father endeavoured to op- 
pofe, as thinking it below the dignity of his 
Family ( which was delcended from the Earls 
ofCanofu ) to have one of his Children a Pain- 
ter : but at laft, the ftrength of Nature pre- 
vailing againft the Rules of Prudence, he put 
Michael Angelo to Vomenico Ghirlandai, who was 
then reputed thebeft Painter in Florence. 

He was then about fourteen, and in lefs 
than two years time,he followed the Art with 
lb great application, that his Matter faid, he 
was aftonifhed at the progrefs he made, as alio 
at the boldnefs of his Pencil \ for one day, a 
Schollar oiOhirlandios having drawn fome Wo- 
men cloathed, out of a Work of the laid Ma- 
iler, and fucceeded pretty well, according to 
the Defign \ Michael Angelo took the paper, and 
making with a pen new Centers to the Fi- 
gure that his Fellow Schollar had drawn, not 
only mended his Drawing, but mowed there- 



by fome Faults that were in his Matter's Ori- 
ginal ; which boldnefs of a Youth of his Age, 
argued a prodigious Genius for the Art. 

Much about that time Lorenzo of Medici*, 
who was a mighty lover of Sculpture, and ufed 
to lament, that there was not then one young 
promifing Sculptor in Florence, let up a kind of 
Academy in his Pallace, for the Improvement of 
Youth that way, and defired Guirlandaio, that if 
he had any of his Apprentices that were hopeful 
Young Men, he would fend them to him \ ac- 
cordingly, he fent him Michael Angelo and 
Francefco Oranaccio, as the mofl hopeful of his 
School. There was an old Head of a Faun, or 
Satyr, which was made Laughing ; and itftruck 
Michael Angelo\ fancy fo, that taking the In- 
struments that Sculptors Life, which he had never 
handled in his Life before, he fell to trying to 
imitate that Head, and at laft did it fo perfect- 
ly well, that Lorenzo aftonithed at the great- 
nefs of his Genius, commended him extraor- 
dinarily ; and obferving, that he had added 
of his own Invention, to make the Faun 
N n {how 

274- The LIFE of 

mow his Teeth and part of his Tongue ; he 
told him laughing, and with a Defign to make 
fport, that that was improper, for that Old 
Men, as that was, never had all their Teeth ; 
Michael Angelo thinking he was much in the 
right, went next day, and broke a Tooth of 
the Satyr's, ordering the Gums likewife to 
look as if it were fallen out, and then mowed 
it to Lorenzo of Medick, who laughed heartily 
at Michael Angela's Simplicity, but refoved to 
cherilh his Talent, and therefore fending for 
his Father, defired lie would let him flay in 
his Family, and he would take care of him ; 
which his Father very readily granted. 

He flayed there four Years, during which 
time, by the advice of Politian, a great Virtuofo 
and Lover of Art, he undertook to Carve in 
Marble the Battle of Hercules with the Centaurs*, 
which he did fo rarely, that to thofe who fhall 
confider it now, it will appear rather the Work 
of an intelligent well practifed Mafler, than 
of a Young Student, as he was then. There is 
likewife a Noftra Donna of Bajjb Relievo in Marble* 



xlone by him much about the fame time, with 
a defign to imitate the Manner of Donatella ; 
which he has done to a Miracle ; and this is 
the only Piece oiBaJfo Relievo that ever he did, 
and is therefore preferved with great Care in 
the Pallace of Medick. 

Lorenzo being dead, and his Son Peter carry- 
ing himfelf Infolently in the Government, 
great Revolutions followed, and the Family 
of MedicU was quite driven out of Florence > 
which Michael Angelo forefeeing, and being 
afraid, leaft his Dependance on that Family 
might be of fatal Confequence to him, had 
withdrawn himfelf lbme Weeks before to Bo- 
logna, and thence to Venice \ where finding no 
Work, he returned to Bologna, in order to ap- 
proach Florence, but having forgot to take a 
Pafs at his coming in, he was feized going out, 
and Find more Money than he was then 
worth, not being able to pay it, juft as he was 
going to Prifon, one Signior Giovan Francefco Al- 
drovandi took pity of him, payed the Money, 

N n 2 and 

21 6 lb* LIFE of 

and carried him home to his own houfe, where 
he flaid a whole Twelve-Month with him \ du- 
ring his {lay he did but one piece of Work, 
which was, to add to an old piece of Sculpture 
in MARBLE of the Sculpture of 
St. Dominick ; there being an Angel holding a 
Candliftick wanting,and another Figure of about 
a Yard long ; both which he fupplyed fo well, 
that they are the two belt Figures in the whole 
Work, though it was done by Giovan Pifano 
and Nicoh de Larta, Sculptors of great 

After this he returned to Florence, and there 
made for Pier Francefco of Medici* a Saint John ; 
and a little after, for Baltafer del Milanefe, a Cu- 
pid fleeping \ which being mowed to Pier 
Francefco, he told Baltafar, that it might pafs 
for Autique, if it were buried under Ground a 
while, and made to look old ; Bah afar took the 
hint,andcarryed it to Rome, where heburyed it 
in a Vigna, having firft broke the Arm of it ; 
and fo after fome time had it dug up, and fold 
it for Antique to the Cardinal San Giorgio for 



two hundred Crowns, fending Michael Angelo 
only thirty for his pains. Others relate the 
thing otherwife \ but all agree, it was taken 
for Antique, and fell at laft into the hands of 
Duke Valentino, and he gave it the Marchionefs 
of Montfua, where it ftill remains. The Re- 
putation that Michael Angelo got by it, was fo 
great, that he was fent for to Rome, and pla- 
ced in the Family of Cardinal San Giorgio, 
where neverthelefs, he was a whole Year 
without Imployment, the Cardinal under- 
handing but little of either Painting or Sculp- 
ture, but a Roman Gentleman called Jacopo Qalli 
understood his Merit better, and got him to 
make him a Cupid of Marble, and by it a Fi- 
gure of a Bacchm, who holds a Cup in his 
Right Hand, and in his Left, a Tygers Skin 
and a Bunch of Grapes, which a Young Satjr 
trys to eat fome of \ in which Figures, Michael 
Angelo made, as it were, a mixture of the Beau- 
ty of both Sexes, having given it the Clean - 
nefs of Limbs, and Strength of the Men, and 
withal, the roundnefs and fleihinels of the 


278 The L I F £ of 

Women, which gave him the Bell above all 
Modern Artifb of Rome and elfewhere. 

His fame increafing every day with his 
Skill, the Cardinal of Rouen, who was then 
Chief Minifter of France, defiring to leave 
fomething at Rome that mould prefer ve his 
Memory there, befpoke Michael Angelo to make 
him a Pitla, as it is called in Italian ; that is, 
our Lady with our Saviour's Dead Body in 
her Lap : he did it with fo much Care, and 
finiflied it with fuch admirable Diligence, 
that 'tis impoffible to fee any thing better in 
Marble ; particularly, the Dead Body of our 
Saviour is fo exquifitely formed, with all the 
Mufcles, Veins, and Nerves, and yet made fo tru- 
ly dead, that no Art in the World can go be- 
yond it ', fome blame him for having made 
the Virgin's Face too Young ; but they do not 
confider, that Virgins unfpotted preferve 
their Frejhnefs a great while \ the Drapery is 
the noblelt and loofefl in the World ; which 
is one of the hardeft things in Sculpture. In 



Summ, he mowed fo much Art in this Piece, 
that, contrary to his Cuftam, he put his 
Name to it ; fome fay, he was provoked fo to 
do by fome Lombard Artifts, who being come 
to look upon it, one of them asked the other 
whofe Work it was, and the other made an- 
fwer, that it was done by // Gobbo, a great 
Sculptor then living at Milan ; which Michael 
Angela over-hearing, Carv'd his Name in a 
Girdle that goes about the Madonna's 

About this time his Friends at Florence in- 
vited him back to undertake an odd piece of 
Work, which was thus ; a piece of Marble of 
about nine Yards high, had been given to one 
Simon da Fiefola, who had begun a Gyant in it, 
but with fuch ill Succefs, that thofe that 
were to pay for it had layed it by as a thing 
fpoiled \ but it being a fine piece of Marble* 
the Gonfaloniero Soderini had propofed to Lionardo 
da Vinci and to Andrea Sanfevini, an excellent 
Sculptor, to do fomething with it ; Andrea was 
willing, but faid, they could not make a Fi- 

2 8o ' The LIFE of 

gure out of it without adding fome pieces ; 
which Michael Angela hearing, undertook to 
do it without putting any piece to it, where- 
upon it was delivered to him. 

He therefore began, and made a Model of 
Wax, and fram'd the Statue of David, with a 
Sling in his hand ; and then, having enclofed 
a place with Boards, he fell to work upon the 
Marble, and would not fuffer any Body to fee 
what he did \ he had much ado to make it 
ferveforhis defign, the firfl Sculptor having 
fpoiled it, fo that he was forc'd to leave in 
the Extremities of his Figure, fome ftrokes 
of the former Chizzel ', which neverthelefs, 
did not any ways deform it ; after much La- 
bour, having miraculoufly Created a new 
thing out of an old deformed Carcafe, there 
was much Contention among the Ingeneers of 
the City, how to tranfport it to the place 
where it was to be fet up ; but at laft, Giulian 
of St. Oallo, and his Brother Antonio, were the 
Contrivers of a Machine, in which it was car- 


ried fufpended by Cables, anci then railed by- 
degrees with Leavers, to the place it was to 
ftand in ; as loon as it was uncovered, all the 
Town flocked to fee it ; and to fay truth, 
it not only lurpalfes all Modern Statues, 
but may come in competition with the An- 
tient Greek and Roman ones ; for as to exa£t- 
nefs of Meafure, Beauty of Shape and Propor- 
tion, and dilicate Contors of the Legs, with a 
cleaunefs of all the Limbs, nothing can out- 
do it , the Aptitude of its Pofture, and the 
Air of the Head are Divine : and in a word, 
after it we may never defire to fee any, either 
Modern or Antient, for there is all the Beau- 
ty in it that Art can give \ and yet to Ihow 
how Artifis mull fometimes humour Great 
Men, who pretend to be Judges, and are not ; 
the Qonfaloniero Soderini found fault with the 
Nofe, and laid it was too big \ whereupon 
Michael Angelo, to pleafe him, took a Chizzel in 
one hand, and in the other a little Marble duft 
that lay upon the Scaffold by him, and pre- 
tending to mend the Nofe,H:ruck three or four 

O o blows 

2 82 The L I F E of 

blows with the wrong end of his Chizzel, and 
let the Duft fall by little and little, and then 
called to the Gonfaloniero to ask him how he 
liked it ; who told him, that that little altera- 
tion had quite made it another thing;at which 
Michael Angelo laughed in himfelf, for he had 
not touch'd it any ways to alter it. The 
Gonfaloniero paid him four hundred Crowns 


Having iucceeded thus rarely in Sculpture, 
he neverthelefs would not omit to mow his 
Excellency in Painting , and therefore, at the 
Requeft ofAgnolo Doni, a Florentine Citizen, and 
his Friend, he made him a Madonna upon her 
Knees, holding of her little Son upon her 
Hands, and lifting of him to St. Jofeph, who 
feems to receive him : He has particularly 
expreffed in the Eyes of the Madonna, the ten- 
dernefs of a Mother admiring the Beauty of 
her Child , and in the Looks of Old Jofeph, 
all the Refped and Devotion which he muft 
have for a Child which he knew to be Divine- 


ly Born : And in the Piece, at a diflance, to 
fliow his Art the more, he made feveral Na- 
ked Figures, ibme flanding, others fitting, all 
admirably Finiih'd ; and indeed, it is one of 
the beft Qyl-V aintings he ever did, he having 
worked but little that way. 

The Picture being FiniQied, he fent it co- 
vered to Agnolo Don'h and withal, a Note for 
feventy Crowns, to be paid down immediately ; 
Agnolo thought it too much to lay out in a 
Picture, and therefore fent him but forty . 
upon which Michael Angelo fent back the Mef- 
fenger, and required a hundred Crowns or the 
Picture \ Agnolo then was content to give him 
the other thirty, and fent them by the Man 
that demanded a hundred \ but Michael Ange- 
lo, to punifh him for Bargaining for fo rare a 
Piece, fent the Money back, and demanded a 
hundred and forty, which was the double of 
his firfl Price, or elfe the Picture : Agnolo, 
who knew the true Value of it, immediately 
fent him all he defired, and glad he had it 

O o 2 About 

284 7 be L IF E of 

About that time, Lionardo da Vinci having 
done fome Stories in the Chamber of the 
Great Council, in the publick Pallace, the Oonfa- 
loniero Piero Soderini bargained with Michael An- 
gela to do one fide of the fame Room, and 
gave him for his Subject the War with 

Michael Angelo being to Paint in concurrence 
with Lionardo, who was one of the greateft 
Artifts of the World, fhut himfelf up, as his 
Manner was, and made a Cartoon, in which he 
drew a world of Naked Figures, which he 
fuppofed to be bathing themfelves in the Ri- 
ver Arno, and to belong to the Camp, which 
was hard by ; and at the fame time there was 
an Allarm given, which made thefe Figures 
all endeavour to get on their Cloaths and Ar- 
mour, in various poftures ; amongft the reft, 
there was an Old Fellow who had a Garland 
of Ivy aboiit his Head, and was juft come out 
of the Water, and trying to put on his Stock- 
ings, which by reafon of the Wetnefs of his 



Legs, were hard to pull on, and he being be- 
fides, frighted with the noife of the Drums 
and A Harm, feemed to ufe all the Strength 
of his Mufcles and Nerves to make hafte, 
making fuch a Face at the fame time, as mow- 
ed that he was all over in action from the 
Head to the Toe ; there were befides, Gruppos 
of Horfeman beginning the Fight, and others 
of Foot at a diftance coming on, fome in the 
Shade loft, others in the Light ftrong and 
vigorous, and all in great variety of Apti- 
tudes : So that nothing could be either bet- 
ter Defigned, or more ingenioufly Invented • 
and particularly, the Shortnings were admi- 
rable and ftrong, beyond all that had yet ap- 

This Cartoon being afterwards carried to 
a Room in the Pallace called La Sala del Papa 
has there been the Study of all the Painters 
of that Age, both Natives of Florence and For- 
reigners y for Raphael de I Vr bin, Francefco Granac- 
cio, Andrea del Sarto, Jacobo da Puntormo, Perin 
del Vaga> and feveral others, made their Study 


286 The LIFE of 

of it : for which reafon, it was at laft remo- 
ved to the Pallace of Medicis ; and the great 
Liberty Sttangers had to come to it, making 
it be lefs watched, it was in the end, in the 
Sicknefs of the Duke Giulian of Medicis, ftole 
away by pieces ; and fome of it is yet to be 
feen in the Houfe of 5. Vberto Strozzi at Man- 

About the Year 1 504, Vo^ejuliw the Second 
having fuceeded Alexander the Sixth* he fent to 
Florence for Michael 'Angela, with a defign to make 
him erect a Stately Sepulchral Monument for 
himfelf : Accordingly, having fent him Mo- 
ney for his Journey, he ordered him to go to 
the Quarries of Marble at Carrara, and there to 
fee the Stones cut out as he would have them. 
Michael Angela fpent eight Months intire in 
that Employment, and fent fo much Marble 
to Rome, as filled half the great place before 
Saint Peters. 

The whole defign of the Monument was to 
contain above forty Statues of Marble, befides 
little Boys, Ornaments, and other Carvings ; 



about the Corniches it was to be, as it were, 
an lie in the middle of aChappel, foas it might 
be walked all round, and confidered from the 
Out-fide. Of this Work he finifhed four Sta- 
tues, and began eight more ; which were ne- 
ver Finifhed, by reafon of the Pope's Death. 
Of all thefe, his Mofes is the moil Excellent ; 
it is about five Palms, of white Marble, in a 
fitting pofture, leaning one hand upon the 
Tables of the Law-, and with the other ftro- 
king his Beard ; the very Hairs of which are 
expreffed as if they were living Hairs ; the 
rell of his Countenance is of the greateft Ma- 
jefty and Sweetnefs imaginable, the Drapery is 
Loofe, Long, and Noble ; and in a word, the 
whole Figure is Exquifite beyond Imaginati- 
on ; the Sculptor having expreffed fomething 
of that Divinity which was in a Man that con- 
verfed fo familiarly with the DEITY it 


'Tis faid, that while he was doing this 
Work, the reft of the Marble he had befpoke 


288 Tk LIFE of 

at Carrara, came to Town, and that Michael 
A igelo being gone to acquaint the Pope with, it, 
and finding himbufie, payed for the bringing 
the Marble, out of his own Pocket, that the 
Workmen might be gone home who had 
brought it ; ibme time after he went again 
to the Pallace to acquaint the Pope, to whom 
he uled to have very free accefs, that the Mar- 
ble was come, and to defire his Holinefs to 
take order about the paying for it : it hap- 
pened that day, that the Pope was otherwife 
employed ; and the Porter told him, he muft 
have Patience, for he had Orders not to let 
him in : a Courtier that flood hj-, ask'd him. 
if he knew him ; to whom the Porter reply- 
ed, that he knew him very well, but muft 
obay his Orders. This Anfwer, and the Af- 
front angred Michael Angela fo, that he told the 
Porter, that he mould tell his Holinefs,when he 
asked for him next, he was gone about fome 
other Affairs • and fo without further delay 
went home, and ordering his Servants to fell 
all his Furniture to the Jem, and follow him 



to Florence ', he took Pofi two hours after Sun- 
fet, and rode that night to Poggi Bonzi , 
out of the Pope's Territories. There iive 
Courriers overtook him with LETTER S 
from the Pope, defiring his Return \ to all 
which he only made anfwer by a little Note, 
That he dejired his Holinefs to excufe him, that he 
had driven him away from his Pre fence, and that the 
faithful Service he had payed him did not deferve fitch 
Vfage \ and that therefore his Holinefs might provide 
himfelf of fome other Artift in his room, for he was re- 
folvedto Serve him no longer. 

But he was no fooner arrived in Florence, 
but there came Letters from the Pope to the 
Government of Florence, commanding them to 
fend him back Michael Angelo to Rome : which 
perfeverance of the Pope in his Defign, fo 
frighted Michael Angelo, that to avoid his Re- 
fentment, he began to hearken to fome Fran- 
eifcan Fryars, who had Commiffion from the 
Great Turk to entertain him in his Service, he 
having at that time thoughts of making a 
Bridge over the HeUefpont, from Confiantinople to 

P p Per a '. 

2^o T& LIFE of 

Vera : but at laft being over perfwaded by the 
GonfalonieroSoderini, he refolved to goto the 
Pope, who was then at Bologna, and to ask his 
Pardon > the Cardinal Soderini undertook to 
prefent him ; but being Indifpos'd, he deli- 
vered him to a Bifhop of his Friends, who 
brought him to the Pope. Michael Angelo fell 
upon his Knees ', but the Pope looking fcuxvi- 
vily upon him, faid, Injieadof coming to Vs at 
Rome, We have been fain to meet you here at Bo- 
logna. To which Michal Angela replied, that 
he did humbly beg his Pardon, and acknow- 
ledge his Errour : the Bifhop interpofmg, 
told his Holinefs, that fuch Fellows as he 
were not much to be minded, being ignorant 
in every thing of the World but their own 
Art, and therefore might the fooner be excu- 
fed. The Pope grew angry at fuch an im- 
pertinent Interceffion, and with a Switch he 
had in his hand, touch'd the Bifhop fcornful- 
ly, and told him, he was more Ignorant, and 
had lefs Manners than -Michael Angelo, fince 



he laid that to him which he, the Pope had 
not faid : upon which the poor Bifhop was 
turned out of the Room by the Officers \ and 
the Pope having pafled his anger upon the 
Bifhop, gave Michael Angelo his Bleffing, and 
bid him attend the Court, 

After a little while the Pope commanded 
him to make a Statue of himfelf, of about five 
Palms high, of Bronze ; while he was doing 
it, the Pope came one day as it was almoft Fi- 
nifhed, and confidering the pofture ; which 
was, with one hand up in a Commanding 
Manner, the Pope asked him whether he was 
Bleffing, or Curfing in that pofture ? And 
Michael Angelo anfwered, that he was intima- 
ting to the people of Bologna, that they mould 
perfift in their Duty : then he asked the 
Pope, whether he would have a Book in his 
Left Hand ? To which he anfwered, put a 
Sword there, for I underftand but little of 
Books. The Pope left a thoufand Crowns 
behind him for the Finifhing of it \ which 
Michael Angelo did in about fixteen Months ; 

P p 2 and 

2<? 2 The LIFE of 

and it wasfet up over the Frontifpiece of the 
Church of SanPetronio; but not long after, 
the City revolting to the Bentevoglio\ they 
fold this Statue to the Duke of Ferrara, who 
Caft it into a great Gun, & called it La Giulia ; 
only the Head was iaved, and kept in that 
Duke's Wardrobe. 

Michael Angelo after this, being returned to 
Rome, found that the Pope by the perfwafion 
ofBramante, had laid afide the thoughts of con- 
tinuing his Sepulchral-Monument, as a thing 
of ill Omen \ and was perfwaded to have the 
Vault of the Chappel painted by Michael An- 
gelo ', which Bramante did malicioufly, as 
knowing that it would prove a Work of great 
difficulty, and that Michael Angelo was not ve- 
ry well pra&ifed in the way of painting in 
Frefco ; indeed, he ufed all means poffible to 
avoid the thing, and to ingage Raphael del Vr- 
bin in it ' ? but the Pope would take no Excufe : 
So he was fain to undertake it, and agreed for 
the price of fiveteen thoufand, Crowns to fi- 
niOrit all ; he fent to Florence for feveral 



)Vorkmen who were well practifed in the 
Manner oiFrefeo ; and having made the Car- 
toons* they began to paint them upon his De- 
fign : but their Work not anfwering his Ex- 
pe<aation> one day he (hut the Door upon 
himfelf, he put out all they had done, refu- 
fing to let them in, and likewife keeping lb 
clofe at home, that he could not be fpoke with 
by them ; whereupon finding themfelves abu- 
fed, they returned to flounce. He being thus 
alone, took infinite pains, and with great at- - 
tendon and labour, brought about half of it 
to perfe&ion, taking great care that none 
fbould fee what he was doing \ then it was, 
that the Pope, who was naturally impatient, , 
commanded it to be uncovered, and all Rome 
flocked to fee it ', amongft the reft, Raphael dej^ 
Vrbin, admiring the Greatnefs of Michael An- 
^/o'sManner,changed his own upon thefight 
of it, and being an admirable, Imitator of any 
thing he faw, 4tew thofe Prophets and, Sybils^ 
in the Church oi La Pace \ which are the.beft 


294 Jbe L I F E of 

things he ever did ', Brammte upon that would 
fain have had the Pope have given the other 
half of the Work to Raphael to finifli ; but the 
Pope would not injure Michael Angela ; who 
therefore went on, and in about twenty 
Months brought the whole to perfection, not 
having had any help of any kind, not fo much 
as of a Boy to grind his Colours for him. 

There are in it many Stories, beginning 
from the Creation of the World to;the Flood * 
and then following on to moft of the remar- 
kable Stories of the Old Teftament, adorned 
beiides with Sybils and Prophets, according to 
the Compartments of the Vault. The Work 
in general is the extreameft perfection of the 
Art for Shortnings, diverlity of Drejfes, Airs of 
the Heads, and noble Invention, 

Qiulio being dead, the Sepulchre was intermit- 
ted ; though by his W I L L he had ordered 
his Executors to fee it finiftied : However 
Michael Angelo went on working upon fome of 
the Statues at Florence ; where he retired, and 
lived during all the Pontificates of Leo the Tenth, 



and Adrian the Sixth) till Clement the Seventh 
was made Pope , who being defirous to leave as 
much Fame behind him as any of his Prede- 
ceflbrs, fent for Michael Angelo to Rome, and 
there contracted with him for finifhing the 
Library o£San Lorenzo at Florence, together, with 
the Sacriftj of that Convent ; it being the pro- 
per Foundation of the Family of Medici s, and 
their Burying-place. Philippo Brundlefchi had al- 
ready made the old Sacrifty ; therafore Micha- 
el Angelo made his of a new Compofite Order> 
full of Novelty and Variety,, fuch as neither 
Antient nor Modern Architetls never faw the 
like ; for till then, they had gone on in a 
flavifh Manner of obferving exa&ly Set Rules, , 
which Michael Angelobroke through- for which 
the Artiftsare beholding to him, he having, 
as it were, broke their Chains though : Some 
have abufed that Liberty, and too much fb> - 
lowed their own Capricio. 

He made likewife in the fame place, four 
Sepultures for four of the Family of MedicLs - y 

tWO ji 

296 The LIVE af 

two of which were the firft Dukes, to wit, 
Giuliano and Lorenzo ; about their Sepulture he 
made four Statues, reprefenting the Night , the 
Day, Aurora and Crepufculum ; which are fuch 
in their Aptitudes, and the Artifice of their 
Cantdrs, that if the Art of Sculpture were loft, 
it might be reftored by the fight of them j the 
Aurora particularly is the fofteft thing in the 

The terrible Accident of the taking of Rome 
by Bourbon's Army, having come to pafs in 
Pope Clement's Time, the Florentines took that 
Occafion to Revolt from the MedicPs again,and 
drive them out of the City ; whereupon a War 
enfuing, the Government oblig'd Michael An- 
gelo to Fortifie a place called Mount Saint Mini- 
ato, which Commanded the whole Town \ but 
the Armies of the Pope and Emperour having 
at laft clofe Beleagured it, and no hopes of 
Succours appearing, Michael Angelo began to 
conflder of his Danger, and without any fur- 
ther delay, ftole out incognito by the way of 
that Mount San Miniato, accompanyed with An- 


Antonio Mini his Schollar, and 77 Pi/oto a Gold- 
Smith, an Intimate Friend of his, and what 
ready Money he had, and fo got to Ferrara in 
order to go to Venice. Being there, he made 
for the Doge Andrea Griti, the Defign of the 
great Bridge called, The Rialto, which ruffes 
over the great Canal. 

He had not flayed long at Venice, but he re- 
ceived mofl importunate and kind Letters 
from his Friends at Florence, lamenting his 
abfence, and begging of him, if he had any 
Tendernefs for his dear Countrey, to return, 
and help to defend it. Which Letters fo touch- 
ed him, that with great danger of his Life, he 
returned to Florence, and there by the help of 
his Art in defending the Place, made it hold 
out fome Months longer : But the Town be- 
ing Surrendred, he was in greater danger than 
before ; for by the Pope's Order, he was 
fought for among the Enemies of the Houfe 
of Medici*. But having been concealed by a 
very good Friend of his for feveral days, the 
Pope's Anger being over, he commanded that 

Q^q no 

25 >8 The LIFE of 

no hurt mould be done to him ; but on the 
contrary, took him into his Service, and gave 
him the ufual Salary and Appointments he 
had before. 

About this time the Pope having refolved 
to paint the fides of the Chappel of Sixtus \ of 
which Michael Angelo had already painted the 
Vault, he fent for him to <]{ome, and ordered 
him to paint the Reprefentation of the Laffc 
Day of Judgment, that he might (how in fo 
great aSubjedt, all that it was poffible for him 
to do in the Excellency of Dejign. In Obedi- 
ence to the Pope's Commands, he began the 
Cartoon of the Judgment, but was much inter- 
rupted by the Agents of the Duke of Vrbin, 
who charged him with fixteen thoufand 
Crowns received for the finishing of the Mo- 
nument of 'Julius the Second, whole Nephew 
the Duke of Vrbin was \ and this bufinefs was 
a mighty trouble to Michael Angelo ; for the 
Duke, who was a high Spirited Prince, threat- 
ned no lefs than Death, if he failed to perform 
his Contract At laft, by the Pope's Media- 


tion the thing was made up, and a new Agree- 
ment Signed \ by which it was required of 
Michael Angela, to make only one of the four 
Sides which at firffc were to have Compofed 
this Monument, and that in it he mould place 
fix Statues of his own hand \ giving him leave 
withal, to work four Months in the Year for 
the Pope, either at Florence or Rome, according 
as he mould pleafe to employ him. 

About this time died Pope Clement, and Paul 
the Third, of the Family of the Farnefes, was 
chofen to Succeed him ; and then it was that 
Michael Angelo conceived hopes of being more 
Mafter of his Time, and refolved to finifh the 
Statues of the Monument of Julius the Second. 
But the Pope had nofooner taken pofleflion of 
his new Dignity, but he Courted Michael An- 
gelo both with good Words and Prefents, to be 
his Servant, as he had been under the former 
Pontificates, It was with great Relu&ancy 
that Michael Angelo yielded to thele Solicita- 
tions, and not till he had angred the Pope, by 

Qjl y telling 

3 oo The LIFE of 

telling him, that he was by Contract obliged 
to the Duke of Vrbin, and could not attend 
any other Work till he hadfinilhed that ', the 
Pope told him again, that for the Contract, he 
would break it by his Authority ; adding, 
that he had had above thirty years a longing 
to have Michael Angela in his Service, and that 
now that he was Pope, he was refolved not to 
loofe it ; and accordingly, he prevailed with 
the Duke, to fubmit to a new Agreement 
with Michael Angelo \ by which he was obli- 
ged to finifli only three Statues with his own 
Hand, which were thofe of Rachel, Lea> and 
Mofes, and the others were to be made upon 
his Models by the beft Sculptors of the Age- 
This Agreement was performed on all fides y 
and Michael Angelo ingaged himfelf volunta- 
rily to pay for the three Statues, configning 
to that pur pole 1 580 Crowns to the Bank of 
the Strozzi in Florence : and thus ended that 
troublefome Affair. The Monument is to be 
leen in San Pietro in Vincola. 



After this, he applyed himfelf to the paint- 
ing of the ChappeU according to the Cartoons 
made in Pope Clement's Time. It will not be 
neceffary to defcribe here the Invention or Com- 
pojition of this Story, becaufe there are fo ma- 
ny Cutts, both great and fmall, of it in the 
World ; but it will fufflce to fay, that he 
chofe that Subject as the hardeft to lucceed in> 
fince it con lifts molt in mowing the true pro- 
portions of the hardeft of Subje&s; which is, 
the Humane Body Naked, and that in the 
molt difficult Aptitudes, with the ftrongeft 
affe&ions and paffions in the World, full of 
the greater!: variety imaginable. In all which 
he has mowed himfelf to be the greateit Mafter 
in the World, and the true In venter of that 
Great Manner ; he has indeed, not fo much 
minded the beauty of the Colours, and other 
little Ornaments, but has kept to the pro- 
foundnefs of the Art : to which none flnce 
have ever been able to arrive. 
'Tis laid,thatvmen he had almoft finifhed this 
Work, that Pope, Paul the Third, came one day 


3 o2 The LIT E of 

to fee it, and in his Company was, Mejfer Bi- 
agio di Cefena, his Mafter of Ceremonies, whofe 
Opinion the Pope having asked about the thing, 
he being a Bigot, anfwered, that it was a maft 
fhameful thing, that in fo Sacred a place as a 
Chappel, there mould be expofed to view 
fuch a number of Naked Figures, fome of 
them in moft undecent poftures \ mowing in 
both Sexes thofe parts that ought to be con- 
cealed ; and in a word, that it was a Work 
fitter for a Bamly-Houfe than for a Pope's Chap- 
pel. This difpleafed Michael Angela moil ex- 
treamly ; and being refolved to be revenged 
as foon as ever the Pope was gone, he fell to 
work, and drew this Mejfer Biagio by Memory, 
placing him in Hell Naked, with a great Ser- 
pent fattened to his Natural Parts, and invi- 
roned with a Troop of Devils : The Pi&ure 
was fo like, that the Mafter of the Ceremonies 
complained to the Pope \ and finding there 
but fmall Redrefs, apply ed himfelf to Michael 
Angelo, intreating him to reform that part of 



his Piece : but all would not do, for he there 
remains to this day. This Piece being finifli- 
ed, was the Admiration of all Rome, and is to 
this day the great Mafter-piece of the Art of 

Pope Paul the Third having built a Chappel 
which was called by his Name, La Paulina, or- 
dered Michael Angelo to do the painting there : 
He painted two Stories, one of the Converfi- 
on of Saint Paul", and another, of the Cruci- 
fixion of Saint Peter : In both which his chief 
Intention was, to fhow the perfection of the 
Art, there being neither Landskip, Trees, nor 
Houfes, nor any other of thofe Additional Or- 
naments, which he feemed to contemn, leav- 
ing them for meaner Genius's than his 

Thefe two Works were the lafl he performed 
in Painting, being now feventy five years olds 
and complaining extreamly of the Fatigue he 
had indured in doing them ; owning withal? 
that Painting, and particularly, in Frefco? was 
not an Art for Old Men. 



7 he LIFE 


3^4. J.VI, J-, X J. J^. Of 

About this time Antonio di San Gallo, who 
was the Ax chit eB for the Church of Saint Pe- 
ters, being dead, thole that had the Care of that 
Fabrick, refolved to put it into the Hands of 
Michael Angela ; who having conlldered San 
Gallons Model, laid, that there might be made 
one of greater Majefty, Order, and Con veni- 
ency, and yet the Execution of it mould coft 
three hundred thoufand Crowns lefs, and be 
done fifty years fooner ; and accordingly, in 
a Fortnight, he caufed a New Model to be 
made, which coft but twenty five Crowns ; 
whereas San Gallo's had coft four thoufand • 
whereby it appeared, that what he laid, was 
very true. 

But it was not without great Oppofltion 
and Contradiction that he went through with 
his Defign ; for having difcharged all the 
Workmen concerned in San Gallo's Time, they 
were continually finding fault with all that 
he did : Infomuch, that at laft he obtained an 
Order called a Motu Propria from the Pope ; by 



which he was conftituted abfolute Mafter of 
that Fabrick, with power to do and undo as 
he thought fit, and commanded all Inferiour 
Workmen and OfHcers to obey him in every 
thing ; and he, not to be behind hand with 
the Pope , had it inferted in the Order, that he 
Served the Fabrick for God's Sake, and with- 
out any Temporal Advantage or Profit to 
himfelf, often refufing Money that the Pope 
lent him upon that Account. 

His chief aim in carrying on that Noble 
Pile, was to fecure it from the Defigns of fu- 
ture Architects, that his own might not by 
Envy or Prefumption be deftroyed ; there- 
fore he was more careful to carry on the 
Foundations to a certain height and length, 
fuch as could not well afterwards, without 
vaft Charge and Danger to the whole Fabrikc, 
be altered, than to fini(h exactly what he 
might have done in his Time, if he could have 
been content to leave the reft to the Manage- 
ment of thole who were to come after him : 
Which has been a great Happinefs for that 

R r Fa- 

3 o6 The L IF Erf 

Fabrick \ which elie would hardly ever have 
been finiihed, the one ftill pulling down what 
the others had Erecled ', therefore he Dedi- 
cated, as it were, the reft of his Life to this 
Work, doing nothing in Fainting, and but 
very little in Sculpture for ever after, 

The Architect San QaUo had begun, and far 
advanced the Work of a Pallacefor the Fami- 
ly of the Farnefes ', after his Death Michael An- 
gelo took care of it, and made that Noble Cor- 
niche without, fo beautiful and various, that 
nothing, either Antient or Modern can out-do 
it : the reft of the Pallace he enlarged and 
beautified both within and without, to that 
degree, that it now panes for the moft Ac- 
complifhed piece of Architecture that is in 
that kind. 

Pope foul the Third being dead, he was Suc- 
ceeded by Juliu* the Third, who continued 
Michael Angelo in the Bufinefs of Saint Peters * 
but his Enemies thinking that now, in a 
New Pontificate thev might better Injure him, 



had poflefled the whole Congregation of De- 
puties concerned to Manage that Fabrick, that 
the Church would be lb dark, that it would 
beufelefs: among thefe, the Chief were the 
Cardinal Salviati, and MarceUo Cervino, who was 
afterwards Pope, though but a few days ; 
the Pope himfelf being fomething poffefled 
againft him, was prefent at a great Meeting, 
in which he was ordered to appear ; and 
there his Holinefs told him, that the Opini- 
on of the Deputies was, that the Church was 
likely to be very Dark, and without fuffici- 
ent Light. Michael Angelo faid, he fhould 
be glad to hear the Deputies themfelves upon 
that Subject ; upon which Cardinal MarceUo 
fpoke, and faid, we are the Deputies, and are 
all of Opinion, that by what appears of the 
Fabrick, the Church mull be obfcure : My 
Lord, laid Michael Angelo, there are three 
Windows more contrived in the Vault of the 
Church, which will make it light enough : 
You never told us that before, replyed the 
R r 2 Car- 

3 o8 Ibe L i f E 0/ 

Cardinal : I confefs I did not, faid Michael 
Angelo, neither do I intend, for the future, 
to acquaint your Lordfhip, or any of the 
Deputies with any defigns ; 'tis enough, that 
I am trufted with the Fabrick, as your 
Lordfhips are with the Management of 
the Money , which is your Bufinefs to 
provide, and mine to employ : then turn- 
ing to the Pope, he faid, Holy Father, you 
fee what I get by all my Care : if the 
pains I take do not help me in the other 
World, I do but loofe my Time in this. 
The Pope was well plealed to lee that he 
had baffled all his Adverfaries, layed his 
hand upon his Shoulder, and laid, make 
no doubt but that you work for your 
SOUL and BODY too, and pray go 

The next day he fent for him and G/- 
orgio Vafuriy who was his Schollar, and then 
in that Pope's Service, to his Retirement, 
called, the Vigna Julia ; where he found the 
Pope fitting in the midft of twelve Cardi- 


nals, and was by him, though much a- 
gainft his Will, forced to lit down amongfl 
them, and talk with them about his Vigna > 
the Care of which he alfo undertook, and 
brought it to that Perfection it now 

After this, being very old, and not able 
to ftir much abroad, he did little but con- 
tinue the Fabrick of San Peters, of which he 
took care almoft to his dying day, for feven- 
teen years together ; having been employed 
by feven Popes, and Courted by all the 
Great Princes of Cbrifiendom, for his Judg- 
ment and rare Skill in thofe three Noble 
Arts of Painting , Sculpture , and Archite- 

On the 17th, of February, in the Year ij6i> 
having been for fome time before without 
{tirring abroad, he payed the Tribute to Na- 
ture, being very fenfible to the laft. His Will 
contained but three Lines, leaving his Soul 
to God, his Body to the Earth* and all 
that he had to his neareft: Relations. He 


3io the L I F £ of 

was ninety years of Age when he dyed, 
and preferved his Judgment and Memory 
to the laft. 

Few have Cenlured his Works with any 
fuccefs ; but fome more malicious, have 
endeavoured to blemilh his Memory by the 
Imputation of III Nature, and Covetuoujhefs. 
Of both which it is eafie to clear him. For 
the firft, it muft be owned, he gave fome 
Grounds for it by his Morofnefs to other 
Artifts, his Contemporaries, and to fuch 
whom he found impertinently pretending 
to Judge of his Works : But I think, 
that mi^ht be very excufable in one of fuch 
extraordinary Abilities, that he faw no- 
thing that could contend with him, rea- 
fonably in any of the things he excell'd 
in : And yet there are Infinite Vejigns of 
his which he freely gave away, and made 
for feveral Artifts, at the very firft Requeft 
they made to him. 

And as for his Covetuoufnefs , the very 
things he gave away in his Life time, of 



his Working, might have been fold for 
thoufands of Crowns ; which, confidering 
what pains he took to acquire what he 
had, may be fufficient to clear him of that 
Imputation : But he was, befides, very 
Charitable, relieving many poor people, and 
Marrying privately fome poor Maids. 
But here we muft not omit his Generosi- 
ty to Vrbi no his Schollar and Servant \ to 
whom one day he faid* If I die, Vrbinoy 
what will become of thee ? And Vtbtni 
anfwered him, That he would Serve lome 
other Matter. Alas ! poor Wretch, laid 
Mkhael Angek , that (hall not be as long 
a& I can help thee out, and immediately gave 
him two thoufand Crowns. Which was 
a Liberality more becoming a Great Prince 
tha<na private Man, who got his Eflate by 
the Sweat of his Brows. 

He was pleafant enough in Converfation 
where he was free - and there are fonie'of 
his Sayings that deferve to be ' remembrecL ' 



312 The LIFE of 

One day at Florence, fome body having asked 
his Opinion of the Statue of Saint Marfy 
made by Donatello ', he faid , That if Saint 
Marfcwere like that Figure, he would eafily 
have believed all he laid, for he never law 
any Figure that had a more honeft Look. 
Being asked alio, what he thought of the 
Brafs dates in Sculpture, made by Lorenzo 
Ghibert'h at Saint Jeans Church ; he faid, 
They deferved to be the Gates of Heaven- 
Going one day by Modem, and feeing fome 
Statues of Earth Coloured like Marble, 
made by Antonio Bigarino, a Modenefe Sculptor, 
he was charmed with the Beauty of them, 
and faid, If this Earth fhould become Mar- 
ble, wo be to all the Antient Statues oiRome 
and Grace. 

He was carried to Florence after his Death, 
and there Buryed in San Piero Maggiore, with 
a great Concourfe of People ; though with- 
out any precedent Preparation, being Inter- 
red the very next day after the Body came 



to Town \ but all the Artifts of the City 
waited upon him to his Grave : Some 
Months after he had mofl Magnificent Ob- 
fequies performed for him in the Church 
of Sdn Lorenzo. 

He had for Schollars Jacobo Sanfovino, 
II Roff6y II Puntormo, Daniel di Volterra, 
and Giorgio Vafari , of Arezzo. He had no 
luck with thofe who lived with him as Do- 
mefticks ; for Piero Vrbano of Pifloia, would 
never take any pains, though he had a good 
Difpofition towards the Art : And Antonio 
Mini took pains, but had no Genius. 

S f 



the LIFE of 

The L I F E of 

Giulio Romano ; 


AMong all Raphael's Dilciples, molt of 
which proved great Artifts, there was 
none of them imitated him fo per- 
fectly both in De/zgn, Invention, and Colouring, as 
Giulio Romano ; being univerfal and profound- 
ly Learned in the Art, and having acquired 
befides, a mighty Knowledg of Antiquity \ his 
Genius moreover was fo conformable to Ra- 
phael's Humour, being always merry and plea- 
fant, without Offence, that Raphael loved him 



as if he had been his own Son, and employed 
him above all his other Schollars in his Works 
of greater!: Importance ; as, in the Pope's Ap- 
partments \ the paintings of which are many 
of them painted by Giulio after Raphael's De- 
fign ;and particularly, the Stories of the Cre- 
ation of Adam \ that of the Building the Ark ; 
the Story of Pharaoh's Daughter finding Mofes 
by the River-fide ; in which there is a moil 
admirable Lands kip of Giulio 's own Invention : 
he finifhed likewife good part of the Stories 
that are painted in the Pallace of Agoftin Chigi \ 
as like wile he drew all but the Head of a Pi- 
cture of the Vice-Queen of Naples, which Raphael 
fent to Francis the Firfi, and is ye t kept at Fon- 
tainebleau. Raphael being an admirable Archi- 
tect, as well as Painter, Giulio took luch delight 
in drawing many of his Plots for Pallaces and 
Churches, and other Buildings, that he at laft 
became a great Matter that way : and Raphael 
being dead, and having made Giulio Romano his 
Heir, together with Giovan Francefco, called, 
S f 2 // 

3l 6 Ibe L IF £ of 

II Fattor ,upon Condition, that they two mould 
finifh the Works that he left unfinimed ; they 
very honourably performed his Will, and per- 
fected the beft part of them. 

After this Cardinal Giulian Media'*, who was 
afterwards Pope Clement the Seventh, having 
pitched upon a Spot of Ground in Rome, under 
the Monte Mario ; where, befides a dilicate Pro- 
ipe£fc, there were Fountains and Wood, and a 
Plain, which reaching all along the Tyber as 
far as Ponte MoUe, had on both fides an extent 
of Meadows almoft as far as the Gate of Saint 
Peter \ he refolved to build a Pallace on the top 
of this Ground, and to adorn it with moft ex- 
quifite Gardens, Woods, Fountains, Statues, 
<£?c. And gave Qiulio Romano the Direction of 
the whole Work ; which he did with great 
Care, and built that Pallace which is now cal- 
led La Vigna de Medici ' ? the Front of it is Am-r 
phitheater-wife, with a diviflon of Nicks and 
Windows of the Joriick Order ; fo well under- 
wood, that many belies e it to have been fir ft 



Defigned by Raphael. The Infide is painted 
by Giutio in many places. 

Adrian Succeeded Leo the Tenth, who valuing 
neither figures, Statues, nor Architecture, all 
the Artifts of Rome were at their wits-end how 
to diipofe of themfelves ; but his Pontificate 
proved but (hort } and in his room, the lame 
Cardinal Giulian of Medici* was chofen , and 
took the Name of Clement the Seventh : Giulio 
Romano, and all the Artifts of Rome were over- 
joyed at his Exaltation ; which they took to 
be the Exaltation of all the fine Arts : and ac- 
cordingly, by this Pope's Order, they fell to 
work with Joy, to finilh the Hall of Con/ran- 
tine : in one of the fides Giulio drew Conftantine, 
making a Speech to his Souldiers ; and in the 
Air there appears the Sign of the Crofs, with 
thefe words, In hoc Signo vinces. In the great- 
eft fide of the Room is a Battle fought near 
Ponte yiolle, where Confldntine Routed Maxenti>~ 
m. Which Work, by reafon of the Dying 
and Wounded, and of the various and ftrange 
Aptitudes of the Horfe and Foot, who fig! it 


3 i8 the LIVE of 

all iu a Troop, is wonderful for Defign, but 
the Colouring is fomewhat Faded, by reafon of 
the Black ; which Ohdlo ufed much in his way 
of painting, and which has taken away the 
Beauty of many of his Pieces. In the fame 
Piece he chofe for Landskip all that Countrey 
that is under Monte Mxrio ; and drew Max- 
entim drowning in the Tyber upon a dilicate 
Horle. In a word, this Battle has been as 
it were the Model for moil Works of that 
kind, and have been done fince ; and in 
it Oiulio mowed how well he had ftudied Tra' 
jan and Antonius's Pillars in Rome ; for out of 
them he took the Habits, Arms, Enfigns, 
and other things of War proper to the Ro- 

The other fide of the Room was adorned 
with the Story of Saint Sylvefters Baptizing 
Conftantine \ and under the Figure of Pope Syl- 
<vefleiy he drew Clement the Seventh \ as alio, a- 
mong the Affirmants he drew 77 Cavalierino,who 
was then his Favourite ; and alfo Nicolo Vefpuc- 
c'h Knight of Rhodes. 



Over the Chimney he drew the Church of 
Saint Peter in profpe£tive, and the Pope Ting- 
ing high Mafs Pontifically ; that is, with the 
Affirmants of all the Cardinals and Prelates 
of the Court. At the Pope's Feet is figured 
Conftantine upon his Knees, prefenting of the 
Cityof Rome : Showing thereby, that Confian- 
tine gave that City to the Church of Rome. 
In this piece there are feveral Women upon 
their Knees, that look upon the Ceremony : 
which are admirable Figures \ he drew alia 
in'thiT piece his own picture, and Count 3aU 
tafar Cafiiglione% the Author of II perfeBo Cor- 
tigiano, who was an Intimate Friend ofGiulws:. 
And it happening at that time, that the 
faid Count was Ambafladour from Frederick,. 
Marquefs oiMantoua, ; he received Orders from 
the Marquefs his Matter to provide him the 
beft Archhed: he could for his New Paliace ;, 
and particularly, recommended to him to get 
Giutio Romano, ifpoffible; the Count fo ply eel 
Oiulio with promifes and entreaties, that at: 

320 The LIFE of 

lafl he confented to go, if he might have the 
Pope's leave > which being obtained, they fct 
out together, and Giulio was prefented to the 
Marquels by the Count himfelf > he was re- 
ceived with all demonftrations of Favour, 
and had immediately a Houfe provided for 
him, and a Table for himfelf, and Benedetto 
Pagni his Schollar, as alfo for a Servant ;. the 
Marquels befides fent him feveral Ells of Vel- 
vet, Damask, and fine Cloth, to make himfelf 
Cloaths to his mind. 

A little after, hearing that Giulio had no 
Horfes, he prefented him with a Favourite 
Horfe of his, and bid him get up upon him, 
took him out of Town with him to a certain 
place called // Te, where he had fome Lodg- 
ings and Stables in the middle of a fine Med- 
dow, where he bred his beft Horfes ; there he 
mowed him the place, and told him that he 
would willingly have an Addition made to 
the Building without fpoiling the old Walls, 
intending itonly for a place of Recreation, to 
go now and then and Supp in. Giulio having 



heard the Marquefs's Defign, fell immediate- 
ly to work ; and making ufe of the old Walls* 
he made the great Hall which we fee now at 
the Entrance, and the Chambers on each fide 
of it; all which he adorned with Pillars and 
Capitals of a RufHck Order : which ib pleafed 
the Marquefs, that he refblved to make it in- 
tirely of one Model ; which Oiulio did in this 
Form. The Pallace is fquare, and has within 
it a great green Court, in which are four En- 
tries crofs-wile : the Appartments within 
are all varioufly painted ; the Ceiling of the 
great Hall is done in Frefeo, with leveral Sto- 
ries ; and on the Walls are drawn all the Mar- 
queffes beft Horfes, and his Dogs of the fame 
colour,and the marks as the Horfes ; all which 
were Defigned after the Life by Giufio, but Co- 
loured by Benedetto Pagni his Schollar, and 
Rinaldo Mantonano a painter ; and indeed 
they are to well done , that they feem 
alive. From this you come into a Room on 
one fide of the Pallace-, the Ceiling of which is 
divided into Compartments of Stucco-work, 

T t guilded 

322 roe L IT E of 

guilded in fome places, which make a fquare 

place;in which Giulio has drawn Cupid efpoufmg 

Pfyche in the prefenceof Jupiter and all the other 

Gods ; and in this piece he has mowed his ut- 

mofl Skill, the Shortnings being all dl 

Sorto intuy or from below, fo exquifite, that a 

Figure that is not a foot long, feems to be a- 

bove three in looking upon it from the ground. 

In the O&angles which inviron the Ceiling-, 

are drawn Stories of Pjfyche's Adverfity while 

fhe was perfecuted by Venus : the Colouring is all 

of the fame Hands, and in Oyl, 

Below on the fides of the Room, the remain- 
ing Stories of Pfyche are in Frefco : and are, Pjfy- 
che in a Bath Bathed, and tended by little Cu- 
pidsy who with moft proper Geftures wafh her 
and wipe her dry. On the other Wall is a 
Banquet prepared by Mercury > where the Graces 
adorn the Table with Flowers, while Bacchus 
Silenus and the Bacchantes are by, finging and 
playing upon Inftruments ; there is a Side- 
Bpard covered with Vines and Flowers in Fo 




ftoons 9 and on it three rows of drinking- Vei- 
fels of all forts, fo bright and (tuning that 
they feem perfect Gold and Silver ; not far 
from this Table is leen Pjyche her felf waited 
upon by Women of great Beauty ; while at a 
diftance, Pbabus in his Charr drawn by four 
Horfes, comes to enlighten the Day \ and 2f- 
phyrm naked upon certain Clouds, blows in a 
Horn to make the Air fweet and pleafant 
round about Pjyche. 

In another Corner of the Pallace which an- 
fwers to the Room where the Stories of Pfyche 
are painted, Oiulio refolved to build an Apart- 
ment that ihould correfpond with the paint- 
ings he defigned for it > and to that purpofe, 
having layedavery ftrong Foundation, be- 
caufe the place was Marfhy, and made Walls 
capable of bearing a double Vault \ he made 
the In-iide of grois Ruftick Work, the Stones 
whereof feemed to be put together by chance, 
and ready to fall out of their places ; and then 
he painted it with one of the oddeft Fancies 
that it was poffible to imagine; and that is, 

T t 2 the 

324 7fe LIFE of 

the Story of Jupiter deftroying the Giants with 
Thunder and Lightning: In the middle of the 
Vault he drew Heaven, and in it Jupiter in 
his Throne above the Clouds. 

A little below he drew Jupiter again, thun- 
dering of the Gyants, affifted by Juno ; the 
other Gods in various Aptitudes, moil of them 
aftonifhed, feem to fly away, to avoid the Ru- 
ine and Diforder which is threatned from a- 
bove ; on the fides of the Room are the Gyants, 
ibme of which have whole Mountains and 
Rocks whelmed over them, others feem to fly 
at a diftance through a Grotto that is made 
hollow, and others are ftruck down with the 
Ruines of Temples and Pillars that fall upon 
them, making a r great Slaughter of them y 
and upon the Chimney, which is near thefe 
Walls that feem to hang as if they would fall, 
he drew Pluto, with his Char drawn by fiery 
Horfes, accompanied by Infernal Furies, and 
iteming to fly to the Center of the Earth. By 
which Invention Giulio did not depart from 
his Subject, and yet alluded to Fire \ which- 



was the properefl Ornament for the Chim- 
ney. 'Tis impoffible to fee a Story, either 
more boldly Defigned, or more capricioufly 
Invented, the whole Compofition hanging all 
together without either Beginning or End ; 
and being adorned with variety of odd Land- 
skips to fuch an Advantage, that the Room, 
which is not fifteen yards in length, feems to- 
be a van: Compafs. All which mews the ad- 
mirable Judgment of Giulio \ the Colouring is 
all of Rinaldo Montouano, and admirable \ for 
in this Piece he attained to a great perfecti- 
on ; infomuch, that had he lived, and not dy- 
ed Young, he would have proved a moft ex- 
quifite Painter. 

While Giulio was thus employing his Talent 
for the Marquefs's Service, the River Po one 
year broke its Banks, and overflowed a good 
part of the City , whereupon Giulio by the* 
Command of the Marquefs, caufed all that 
low part of the Town to be pulled down, and' 
upon thofe Ruines be raifed New Buildings, 
vvhofe Foundations were higher than t he* 

Water : • 

Tk LIF E of 

Water : But in fo doing, he could not but dif- 
oblige fome Owners of Houfes ; who threat- 
lied Revenge : which coming to the Prince's 
Ear, he declared, that whatfoever (hould be 
done to Giulio, he would take as done to him- 
felf, and punifli it accordingly. And indeed 
the Duke was fo in Love with the Vertues of 
Giulio, that he could hardly live without him . 
which made him likewife love the place fo 
well, that he built himfelf a Houfe, which he 
adorned with Stucco Work, and Antiquities he 
had brought from Rome : And before he died, 
he had (almoft built the whole City a new, 
having inlarged the Streets, and given the 
Defign of moil oi the bell: Houfes and Pallaces, 
as alio of the Churches and other publick 

* In the Duke's Pallace within the City he 
made two noble Stair-Cafes , a Lumaca \ and 
built new Appartments \ in which he paint- 
ed all the Hiftory of the Wars of Troy : and 
in another Room, under the hands of the 
Twelve Roman Emperours, painted by Titian, 



he made twelve Stories in Oyl ; he built like- 
wife another Pallace for the Duke about five 
Miles from Mantua, called Marmirolo \ which 
was moft commodioufly contrived,and adorn- 
ed with Paintings, not inferiour to thofe of 
the Pallaces above mentioned. 

Several of his beft things have been pub. . 
lithed in prints by Oiovan Baptifta Mantouano : 
the chief of which are thefe \ A Chirurgion put- 
ting Cupping-Glajfes upon a Woman's Shoul- 
ders : a Madonna Travailing to ^Egypt, where 
Jofeph has the Afs by the Halter, and fome An- 
gels pull down the Bows of a 'Date-Tree, that 
Chrift may gather the Fruit : a She-Wolf "giv- 
ing Suck to Romulus and Remus : Four Stories -. 
of Pluto, Jupiter, and Neptune, dividing Heaven, 
Earth, and the Sea ; a great Defign of a Pri- 
fon ; in which a number of Prifoners are put 
to the Rack in feveral manners : The Meet- 
ing that Scipio and Hannibal had in the pre- 
fence of both their Armies upon the Banks 
of a River ; and the Nativity of Saint John 

Bapiifi '-£ ; 

328 ft* LIFE of 

Graved by Sebaftiano da ^eggio. Several other 
of his Defigns have been Graved in France and 
Flanders by good hands. 

Oiullo was fo great a De/igner, and did it with 
fo much Eaie, that none ever Defigned fo 
much ', he having made Horfe-loads of De- 
fans of one fort or other ; for being a mofl 
IJniverfal Painter, and an Admirable Archi- 
tect , no fort of Dejign , came amifs to 
him ', but he was particularly Learned in 
Antiquity, underftanding Medals moil per- 
fectly, and having a rare Collection of 

After the Death of the Marquefs Frederick, 
who had been made Duke by the Emperour 
Charles the Fifth : Oiulio was fo concerned for 
the lofs of fo good a Mafter, that he would 
have left Mantom, if the Cardinal, Brother to 
the late Duke, and who by reafon of the 
young Age of his Nephews, had the Govern- 
ment of that State, had not ufed all forts of 
courteous ways to perfwade him to Hay ; and 



considering befides, that he was Married there, 
and had Houfes, and all forts of Convenien- 
cies both in the Town and Country, fit for a 
Gentleman to live in, refolved to yield to the 
Cardinals intreaties, and was by him imploy- 
ed in the Re-building the Duomo of the Great 
Church, which he carried on a great way. 

Not long after Michael Angelo publiihed his 
Judgment at Rome } and Vafari fent to Giulio 
three Defigns of the feven Mortal Sins, taken 
out of that Story of the Judgment : which he 
receiving, it revived in him a defire of doing 
fomething that mould be as ftrong as that 
way of Michael Angelo \ and for that reafon he 
chofe the Story of our Saviour's calling Peter 
and Andrew, and bidding them leave their 
Nets, and turn Fijhers of Men : Which Cartoon 
he finifhed with fo much diligence and force, 
that it was abfolutely the belt of all the things 
he ever did ; it was placed in a Chappel in the 
Pallace, and painted by the Hand of Ferino Gui- 
fon'h an excellent Painter, and one of Giulio 's 
beft Schollars. 

U u About 



330 The LIFE of 

About this time Antonio Sangallo, the chief 
Architect of Saint Peters Church in Rome, being 
dead, and the Super-Intendants of that Work 
being much puzzled to find out a Man fit to 
carry it on according to the Order already 
begun ; at laft they pitched upon Giulio 
Romano* and lent ibme of his Friends to him 
to tempt him with great Offers ; but all in 
vain : for though he of himfelf could wil- 
lingly have accepted fuch an Opportunity of 
returning fo glorioufly to his own Countrey, 
yet two things hindred him ; firft, the Re- 
fpecT: of the Cardinal of Mantoua, who was no 
ways willing to let him go : and then the 
Confideration of his Wife and Family, who 
were much againft it : and yet 'tis thought 
he would have ftruggled with thefe two Im- 
pediments, if at the fame time he had not fal- 
len fick ; of which Diftemper, what with 
the Anxiety of feeing his defire of returning 
to Rome fruflrated, and the Strength^ of his 
Dileafe together,, he dyed in few days, being 
juft fifty four years old, and leaving a Son 



and a Daughter, and a good Eflate to his Son, 
whom in honour of his Mailer he had named, 
Raphael. He was Buryed in the Church of 
Saint Bamabe, without any Monument at pre- 
fent, but a Refolution to have one made for 
him ', but his Son dying not long after, and 
his Wife not being careful of the thing, it 
was never begun. His Onely Daughter and 
Heir Virginia-, was Married in Mantoua to Sig- 
nior Hercole Malatefla. 

Giulio was of a middle Stature, black Hair, 
an open jovial Countenance, with black Eyes, 
Amorous in his Complexion, very well bred, 
Sober in his Dyet, but Sumptuous in his C baths 
and way of Living. This Epitaph is upon 
his Tomb-Stone. 

Romanm moriens^ fecum tres Julius Artes, 
Abjiulit ( baud mirum ) quatuor unus erat. 

U u 2 



the L I F £ of 

The L I F E of 




Florentine Painter. 

THere was in the City of Florence, one 
Giovanni Buonacorjiy who in the Wars 
of Charles the Eighth^ King of France^ 
engaged in his Service in Itaiy y and not only 
fpent his Fortune, but his Life in his Ingage- 
ment with that Court. He had had by a firft 
Wife a Son ; whole Mother dying of the Plague 
when the Child was not above two Months 
Old, it was brought up for a while by a She- 
Goat ; till the Father going to Bologna> there 



Married a fecond Wife, who had loft her Huf- 
band and Children by the Plague too ; this 
Mother-in- Law took companion of this little 
Creature, and having Milk of her own, made 
an end of bringing it up. It was called Piero, 
and by Diminutive, Pierino ', and was by the 
Father, who went into France to ibllicite fome 
Reward for his Services, left in the Hands of 
fome Relations of his ; who being weary of 
keeping it, did, after fome years, put it to 
ferve an Apothecary \ but the Child not liking 
that Trade, he was taken for Apprentice by a 
certain ordinary Painter called Andrea de Ceri, 
from his way of painting the Wax-Candles and 
Torches that ufed to be carried in Proceffion up- 
on certain days : But at laft knowing that he 
was not able to inftruft the Child, who feem- 
ed Ingenious in any good Method of Painting, 
he put him to Ridolfe, the Son of Dpmenko Ghir- 
landaio-y one of the bed: Painters in Italy ', and 
there he fo improved himlelf, that he out- 
ftripped all the Young Men, his Fellow-Ap- 

A boat 

334- Tfr LIFE of 

About that time there came to Florence a 
Countrej-Pdinter called // Vaga, and having feen 
the Manner of Perino, who was already well 
founded in Bejign, which he himfelf wanted, 
he began to tempt him to go along with him 
into the Countrey ', promifing him, that af- 
ter a little working there, he would carry him 
to Rome : at the mentioning of Rome, the Young 
Man opened his Ears, knowing that place to 
be the true School of all Artifts ; and there- 
fore told // Vaga, that if his two Matters 
would give him leave, he would go along with 
him ; they both confented, and // Vaga with 
his new Companion went together to Tufca- 
nella, where // Vaga had a great deal of Work 
to do ', which he not only rimmed to the con- 
tent of thofethat employed him, but wasftill 
going on upon new work, till Perino began to 
complain of Breach of Promife from him, for 
his not carrying him to Rome : II Vaga, though 
loath to leave his Builnefs, which by the 
means of Perino, grew confiderable , yet con- 



fidering that Perino might go without him, re- 
folved to be as good as his word ; and accor- 
dingly, they both arrived at Rome, where // 
Vaga very honeitly recommended him to all 
the Friends he had, and fo returned to Tuf~ 

Perino, who from this time forward, was cal- 
led no otherwife than Perino del Vaga, found 
himfelf neverthelefs at no fmall lofs how to 
profecute his Studies ; for feeing every day 
the Works of the Antients in Sculpture, and of 
thofe famous Moderns, Raphael and Michael 
Angelo in Painting, he was inflamed with an 
incredible defire of imitating them r but 
withal, confidering his own Poverty and 
mean condition, and how that to get Bread, 
he muft work for the Shops of ordinary Pain-- 
ters,fometimes for one,and fometimes for ano- 
ther, according as they would imploy him ; 
he faw that would be a great hinderance to. 
his defires of growing Eminent in his Art :, 
but at laft he found out the Expedient of di- 

33^ the LIVE of 

vidiag his Week, and working three days for 
Bread, and three others for Improvement, ad- 
ding tothefe lafl the Holy-days and Sundays ; 
all which he fpent in Defigning all Remar- 
kable things of both Antient and Modern Artifts : 
His chief Study amongft the Modern, was the 
Chappel of Pope Sixtm, done by Michael Ange- 
lo ', and in a fhort time he grew the boldeft 
DeJIgner of all Rome, under/landing the Mufeles 
and the difficulty of the Art in Naked Fioures, 
better than any of his Contemporaries. This 
made him be taken notice of by Giulio Romano 
and Giovan Francefco, called JIFattore, and both 
together commended him to Raphael their 
Matter, who having feen his Defigning, pro- 
nounced that he would one day be excellent 
in the Art : and as Raphael never let flip the 
Occafion of retaining and helping forward any 
ingenious young Artifi ; particularly when his 
humour & behaviour was gentle and modeft,as Perino 
delVaga\ was, he prefently imployed him in 
the Appartments of the Pope's Pallace, which 
he was then adorning for Leo the Tenth : He 



had conftituted Matter of the Stucco-Work and 
Grottesks one Giovanni da Vdine, the rarefl in 
that kind of any that hath been either before 
or fince, particular inAnimals,Fruits, & fucli 
like fmali Ornaments ; and under him he 
employed feveral Young Men, and according 
as they excell'd and grew able, they were ad- 
vanced to greater Salaries ; which proved a 
mighty School for Attifts of all kinds : Among 
thefe he placed Perino del Vaga, recommending 
him to Giovanni da Vdine. 

F^r/Vzo feeing himfelf Matter of that Oppor- 
tunity he had fo long fought, fell to work 
with fuch diligence, that in a few Months he 
was reputed clearly the belt of all thofe Toung 
Men who worked under Giovanni da Vdine, and 
may eafily this day be dittinguilhed from the 
others at firtt Sight \ for though the T>efigns 
were all Raphael's, yet the manner of putting 
them in execution was very different, ac- 
cording to the Genius and Skill of each Ar- 
tifi , and befides Perino has a Beauty of Co- 

X X louring 

33 8 Tk LIFE of 

louring, which difHnguifties him from all 

the reft. 

What he did in the Pope's Pallace, gave him 
great Reputation ; but that was fo far from 
laying him afleep, and making him prefump- 
tioutly rely upon the Skill he had acquired, 
that on the contrary, he grew thereby more 
ardent and defirous to attain to the great per- 
fection he faw before his Eyes in his Mafter 
Raphael ; to whom he carried himfelf fo fub- 
miffively and refpeclfully, that Raphael, won 
by his Behaviour, loved him as if he had been 
his own Child. 

The Great Hall called La Sala de Pontifici be- 
ing ordered to be painted and adorned with 
Stucco-Work, the doing of the Vault and Celing 
was committed equally to Giovanni da Vdine, 
and Perino del Vaga \ they divided the Ceiling 
into ikven Ovals, in which they painted the 
Seven Planets, drawn each of them by the 
Animal that is appropriated to them by the 
Poets ; as, Jupiter by his Eagle, Venus by her 
Doves, &c. To which they added the Signs of 




the Zodiack, with feveral others of the 
Heavenly Confiellations ; the moft of which Fi- 
gures are of the hand of Pen no. In the middle 
of the Vault or Ceiling is a Round, in which are 
four Figures like four Victories, which hold 
the Pope's Crown and Keys ; which Figures 
being ftiortned moft Mafterly, are befides a- 
dorned with a moft beautiful, light Drapery, 
which difcovers moft gracefully lb much of 
their Naked Arms and Legs as is decent. This 
work was extreamly liked by the Pope, and 
the Contrivers of it rewarded according to 
the Magnificent Humour of that Prince : 
But his Succeflbur Adrian the Sixth being 
ihortly after come to Rome, all the Artifts found 
themfelves not only neglected and laid afide, 
but defpifed and fcorned ; for he being a F lem- 
ming, and a Man of Severity, and pedantick 
Learning, thought thole more Refined Arts 
little better than Mortal Sins : whereupon 
Raphael being dead, and all the other Artifts 
difperfed, Perino went to Florence, where he did 
feveral things, till the Plague drove him from 
X x 2 thence, 

340 The LIVE of 

thence, and forced him to wander from place 
to place, and fhift as well as he could. But 
in the Year 1523, Clement the Seventh, of the 
Houfe of Medkk, being Created Pope, he re- 
called all the Arthls that were left to Rome ; 
and amongft the firft, Perino del Vaga ; whole 
Reputation was fo great, that the Pope ha- 
ving call: his Eye on Giulio Romano and Giovan 
Francefco II Fattore, as Heirs of Raphael's De- 
figns and Skill, to make them the chief Di- 
rectors of all that he (hould think fit to have 
done ; they wifely forefeeing that Perino 
would prove a fhroad Competitor in their 
Art and Bufinefs, refolved to take him in : 
and to that end they gave him Catherine, the 
Sifter of Giovan Francefco for Wife ; tying him 
by this Bond of Affinity, topurfue the com- 
mon Intereft the better. But they had not 
long work'd together, when that great Ca- 
lamity of the Sack of Rome confounded all 
their Defigns afrefh. In that Mis-fortune 
Perino was fain to run up and down with his 
Wife and a Child, carrying them from place 



to place to fave them from the Fury and In- 
folence of the Souldiers ; and at laft > 
he himfelf was taken Prifoner, and forced to 
pay a Ranfom, with fuch ill ufage into the 
bargain, that he had like to have run mad ; at 
laft the fury of the Sack being a little over, 
he fell to working fome odd little things ; 
which he fold as well as he could to the Spa- 
nijh Commanders and Souldiers, living but 
poorly : but it happening luckily, that II Ba- 
viera, who had the managing of the Prints of 
Raphael, efcaped pritty well, and loft but lit- 
tle in the Storm ; he out of his Friendfhip to 
PerinOj fet him to work, to Dejign a good part 
of the Stories, where the Gods transform 
themfelves into other fhapes to obtain the 
end of their Amours : and thefe were Graved 
in Copper by Jacobo Caralgio, an excellent Graver 
of that time, and one who has admirably fol- 
lowed the beauty of the Contours of Perino r s Fi- 
But all this did but juft keep Pernio from fiar- 

vino % 

3+2 The L I F E of 

with little hopes of better Times, the Pope 
and moil: of the Inhabitants of %ome being 
fled ; when Providence lent thither Nkolo Ve- 
nitiano, a Servant of Prince Dorias, and a rare 
Workman in Tapeftry-work, who being an old 
Acquaintance of Perino's, and feeing him in 
that mifery, perfwaded him to go with him 
to Genoa, promifing him to endeavour to bring 
him into Employment for his Matter ; who, 
he laid, had a defign to have his whole Pal- 
lace altered, and painted by fome good hand. 
It was not difficult for him to prevail with 
Perino, who having placed his Wife with her 
Relations in Rome , let forward for Genoa with 
his Friend Nicolo. At his Arrival he was 
raoft kindly entertained by the Prince, who 
thought himfelf beholding to Fortune for dri- 
ving fuch an Artift into his Arms. After 
lbme Difcourfes had together about the 
Prince's Defign, they refolved to make a New 
Pallace, which fhould be adorned with Stuccc- 
Work paintings in Frefco, and Oyl-paintings of 



all kinds ; and becaufe it was the Mafter- 
piece of Petino del Vaga, I will here defer ibe the 
whole thing. 

The Entrance into the Prince's Pal/ace is a 
Marble Gate of the Boric k Order, having on 
each fide the Figures of two Women in Mar- 
ble, who hold up the Arms of the Dor i as \ the 
Figures are done by Sylvio of Fiefile , a bold and 
excellent Sculptor ; but the Gate and Pallace are 
according to the Defign and Models of Perina 
del Vaga. Having pafled the Entrance, you 
come into a kind of Hall, or Landing-place, 
the Vault or Ceiling of which is adorned with 
Stucco-work, mingled with paintings that re* 
prefent feveral Men fighting in different po- 
ftures ; all wrought with great Art and di- 
ligence. On the Left-hand is the Stair-Cafe y 
than the which, nothing can be more Beauti- 
ful, for Grottesks, Antiques, little Figures of 
Boys, Animals, and other things; all made with 
that Richnels of Invention and Judgment that 
his things ufed to be. On the top of the 
Stair-Cafe you land in a dilicate Room, which* 



Ihe LIFE of 

has on each fide a Marble Door, and over the 
Door on each hand, two Figures of a Man 
and Woman turn'd differently, to mow the 
Fore and hind parts ; the Vault divided into 
five Arches, is wrought with Stucco-Work> 
mingled with Ovals of paintings \ the fides 
of the Room are painted down to the very 
ground with the pictures of the famous Men 
of the Houfe of Doria, fome after the Antique, 
fome after the Modern Drefs, all Armed, and 
over them is written in Letters of Gold thefe 
words ; 

Magni Vir'h Maximi Duces, Optima fecere 
pro Patria. 

In the firft Room, which anfwers to one 
of the Marble Doors on the Left-Hand, the 
Ceiling is painted with the Story of the 
Storm that HLnecus was in at Sea, in which 
there are Naked Figures, both dead and alive 
in various Aptitudes, great numbers of Gal- 
lies and VefTels broken and over-let, the Sea 



moft terribly raging, in high billows, the 
Heavens obfcured, and in a word, all the Ap- 
titudes of a Storm. This was the fir ft Story 
that Perino did for the Prince \ and 'tis laid, 
that while he was making his Cartoon, which 
he did at leifure, viewing Genoa in the mean 
while, and diverting himfelf fometimes with 
his Friends, a painter of Bologna, called Girolo- 
mo da Freviji, who worked likewife in the 
Prince's Pallace, ufed to laugh at Perino's De- 
lays, and making of Cartoons, faying,that with- 
out all that ado, he had the perfection of the 
Art at his Pencil's end : This being told Pe- 
rino, he all of a fudden clap'd his Cartoon to the 
Ceiling, and opened the Room, that every bo- 
dy might come to fee it \ which all Genoa did, 
and among the reft, this painter, who having 
view'd it, and feen the ftrength of Defign and 
greatnefs of the Manner, was lb iurprized, 
that without faying a word, next day, h* 
packed up all he had, and retired to Bologna, 
leaving Perino to ferve the Prince by himfelf 
In the other Room on the Right Hand, he 
Y y made 

34-6 Ibe LIY E of 

made alfo pictures in Frefco in the Ceiling,and 
in Stucco-Work he Repreiented the Story of Ju- 
piter's deftroying the Giants by Thunder ; 
where there are many fine Figures Naked, 
and bigger than the Life ; he made four Rooms 
more, all the Ceilings of which are adorned 
with Stucco-Work^ and mingled with paintings 
in Frefco, expreffing the fined oiOvids Fables ; 
and indeed, one cannot imagine any thing 
better invented, nor better Coloured ; for 
Perino was a great Matter of Colouring in 

The four Rooms that anfwer to thefe on 
the other fide the Pallace, are likewife adorn- 
ed and painted in the fame Manner, but done 
by his Men upon the Defigns he gave them, 
where many good painters have wrought ; 
and particularly, one Lucio Romano, who excel- 
led in Grottesks and Stucco-Work. In a word, 
the whole Pallace, to the very Clofets, is in- 
tirely adorned by his hand and Defigns. [ 

Having finiihed this Pallace, the Prince was 
fa extreamly pleafed with him, that he made 



him make Qeftgns for his Hangings, in which 
were reprefented the Loves of Dido and JEne- 
as, and the beft part of the Stories of the Ene- 
ides of Virgil ', like wife the Ornaments for the 
Poops of his (rallies, his Standards, or Flags, 
his Cloths of State which he adorned his Gal- 
lies withal, were all Defigned by the fame 
Hand. And now Perino might have reckoned 
upon being fettled in Genoa, if a Fancy had 
not taken him to choofe Pi fa rather for the 
place to ipend his Old Age in, that City plea- 
ling him better , he therefore took a Houfe 
there, and lent for his Wife from Rome , but 
he had not been long there, and begun fome 
Work for the Duomo, which he was to have 
painted all with new Defigns ; when on a fud- 
den, the Remembrance of fome Amours he 
had left at Genoa, coming into his head, he 
left all, and returned thither : Prince Doria 
entertained him with the fame good Recep- 
tion he had found before,and fet him to work ; 
as many others of the Chief Citizens of Genca 
did alfo \ but the Capricio to which Perino, 
Y y i as 

34-8 Tbe L 1 V E of 

as moll; great painters, was now and then fub- 
jecl:, took him again, and having fome propo- 
fais made to him of returning to Rome, the 
Memory of that place under the Glorious 
Pontificate of Leo the Tenth, running like wife 
in his head, he accepted the propofal of his 
Friends, and went thither ; but he had fbon 
reafon to repent of his Folly ; for he was not 
only neglected by the Pope and Cardinal Far- 
neze his Nephew, for many Months, but like- 
wife, he had like to have loft his Arm by a 
Humour that fell upon it, and which coll: 
him many hundreds of Crowns before it was 

At laft, Signior Pietro Maflioni, having pur- 
chafed a Chappel in the Church of the Tii- 
nity ; the Ceiling of which, and the chief-Al- 
tar piece were already done by Qiulio Romano ; 
he agreed with Perino to paint the reft of the 
Chappel. Having contrived an Ornament 
part of Grottesks, part painted, and part in 
Bijfo Relievo : He drew two Stories ; the one 



of the Pifcina Probatica, with good profpective 
in it ; and the other, of the Refurreftion of 
Lazarus ', to thefe he added the Stories of our 
Saviour's Curing the Centurions Daughter ; 
his driving the Changers out of the Temple ; his 
Transfiguration, and another Story ; and up- 
on the Pilafters, he drew four Figures of 
the four Prophets ; which really are as 
beautiful as 'tis poflible for Figures to be; 
being moft admirably proportioned , and 
thorowly finiQied ; for he did all this 
Work with his own Hand. After this, he 
did little in Rome : but the Pope took fuch 
notice of this Work, that he ordered him a 
Penfion of about fix or {even pound a 
Month, only to look after the Pallace of 
the Pope, and that of the Cafii Farneze : 
He being now much fubjecT: to a Catarrhe, 
or Fluxion upon his Lungs y was forced to 
employ others to carry on his faejigits \ 
which has very much injured them % 
as appears by what he did in CAR- 

350 The LIFE of 

TEL Saint A NO E L 0, and other 

It was terino del Vagas Misfortune, to have 

diiTipated in Women and goodChear, thebeft 
part of what mould have maintained him in 
his Old Age } of which Errour being now 
grown fenfible, he to repair it, fell into ano- 
ther ', which was, to make h/mfelf cheap, by 
undertaking any little piece of Work for a 
fmall Summ of ready Money ; nay, often do- 
ing a world of things for the Pope's Officers, 
only that they might not moleft him in the 
little payments he now and then got from 
Court; and they having found out his blind 
fide, never let him want Employment ; 
befides which, his Time being conti- 
nually taken up by Sculptors , Gravers, 
Joyners, Embroiderers, Guilders, and fuchlike Ar- 
tifts ; all which he was to overfee, and he be- 
ing befides Infirm, he had no other Comfort, 
but as often as he could, to get to the Tavern 
with a good Companion, and there drown his 
Sorrows in a Glafs of good Wine, that being 



a place he had much frequented all his Life 
time ; which, with fome Diforders of Vemvs y 
brought him to his end, at the Age of forty 
feven years : He was Buried in the Rotonda at 
Rome, in the Chappel of Saint Jofeph ; where 
Jofepbo Umo a Phyfitian, and his Intimate 
Friend and Son in Law, caufed this Epitaph 
to be Graved. 

Perino Bonacurtio Vagde, Florentino, qui Ingenio 
& Arte Jingulari egregios cum piftores multos 
turn plafias facile omries Juperavit. Catherina 
Perini, Conjugi ; Lavina Bonacurtia, Pa* 
renti ', Jofephus Lincius, Soceto charijjiffl ~$ 
Optimo fecere. Vixit Annos quadraginti feptem, 
Menfes tres, Vies viginii unum : Mortuus eft.: 
Caland. Novembris, Anno Chrijii, 1 547. 



Tie LIFE of 

The L I F E of 





TMtim was Born at Ladore, a little Town 
upon the River P/ave, in the Year 
1480 \ the Name of his Family was 
VeceW, of the beft of the place ; about ten 
years old, he was lent to an Uncle he had at 
Venice ; who feeing him much inclined to 
painting, placed him with GUn Be/lino, a fa- 
mous painter of thofe days : The painters of 
lowWyand thofe parts, had not any Statues 



or Works of the Antients to draw by ; there- 
fore to help theinfelves, they ufed to Deiign 
after the Life, but in a Manner fo flat and 
{tiff, that their Works had little or no Grace ; 
and Titian learned this Manner fir ft, and was 
a great Proficient in it. But about the Year 
1507, Giorgione being come to Venice , Titian ad_ 
miring his Manner, full of Strength, left his 
old Mafter's way, and imitated this new one 
with fo much fuccefs, that his pictures were 
often taken for Giorgi one's ; which cauled no 
fmall Emulation between them ; particular- 
ly, when Giorgione having undertaken one 
Front of the Fondaco di Tedefchi^ the other was 
given to Titian ; for there he behaved him- 
ielf fo admirably, that one day, fome Gcn- 
lemen of Venice meeting with Giorgione-, and not 
knowing that any but himfelf was employed 
in that work, they gave him joy of his good 
fuccefs, particularly on that fide towards the 
Merceria, telling him, that he had out-done 
that which was towards the Canal Grande : 
Z z which 


rbe LIFE ef 

which fb vexed Giorgione, that before the work 
was quite finiftied, he hid himfelf for feveral 
days in his Houfe, and from that time for- 
wards renounced all Friendship and Acquain- 
tance with Titian. 

Such beginnings could promife no lefs than 
an extraordinary Succefs in the Art \ particu- 
larly, if Titian had added that great Skill of 
managing Colour s> the Study of Dejigning after 
the Antique ; for want of which, his Works 
are often defective in Correctnefs of Dejign : 
but however, the beauty of his Colouring is im- 
mutable, no Painter having ever been £o rare 
a Colourer of the Beauties of Nature in all 

About this time Gian Bellino, Titian s Matter* 
being dead, and having left a Story unfinifhed 
in the Sala del gran Concilio y which is that, 
where the Emperour Frederick Barbarojfa is up- 
on his Knees before Pope Alexander, who puts 
his Fopt upon his Neck : Titian undertook to 
finilh it ; and having changed a great deal of 
his Matter's Defign, he drew there by the Life 



many Senators, and others of his Friends then 
living, ufing in that the Liberty of a Lombard 
Painter ; for it was not probable thole Peribns 
there drawn, could be preienE at the pafTage 
of the Story there reprelented. This piece was 
fo well liked, that the Senate for a Reward, 
beftowed upon him an Office called La Senfe- 
ria> of about three hundred Crowns a year : 
which Office they always ufed to bellow up- 
on the beft Painter of their City, upon condi- 
tion, that he (hall make the Doge's Picture for 
the price of eight Crowns, to be payed by the 
Doge himfelf : Which Pi&ure is to be placed 
afterwards in the Pallace of St. Mary. 

About the year 1514, Aipbonfo, Duke of Fer- 
rara, lent for Titian to finiili like wife a Room 
which had been begun, and pritty well ad- 
vanced by Gian Bellino : there remained two 
pieces to be done ; which Titian mowed all 
the Skill he could in : the one was a kind of 
Baccanauot Dance, of Men and Women drunk 
and finging, amongft which is one naked Wo- 
man alleep, of fuch exquifite Beauty, that fhe 

Z z 2 leems 

35^ Jh LIFE of 

feems to be alive : and in this piece Titian 
wrote his Name : the other contains a great 
many Cupids and Boys in different Aptitudes, 
about an Altar that has the Statue of Venm 
upon it. 

Upon the Dcor of an Armory Titian drew 
likewife the picture of our Saviour, to whom 
a few is (bowing the piece of C^far's Coyn . 
which Head, and the pictures mentioned be- 
fore, are reputed by all Artifts thebefl things 
that ever Titian did ; and he was accordingly, 
raoft liberally rewarded by the Duke of Fer- 


Being returned to Venice, he drew his fa- 
mous piece of Saint Peter Martyr in the Church 
of S. Giovanni Epoh , there you may lee the 
Saint fomething bigger than the Life, fallen 
upon the Ground in a Wood, and attacked by 
a Souldier, who has fo wounded him in the 
Head, that the horrour of Death is painted 
upon his Face ; while his Companion flying, 
(bows as much Apprehenfion in his; in the 
Air are two Angels invironed with fudden 



Glory, which enlightens the Landskip ; which 
is moft admirable : and indeed, this piece is 
the 1110ft Celebrated of any he ever did, 
as being the bell: underftood of all his 

In the Year 1530, C Barks the Fifth, Empe- 
rour of Germany, being come to Bologna, Titian 
by the means of Pietro Aretino, his good Friend> 
was fent far to draw the Emperour ; of whom 
he made an Admirable pidure, all in Ar- 
mour, and was rewarded w ith a prefent of 
a thouiand Crowns : and not long after, being 
returned to Venice, and having made there a 
molt excellen piece of the Annuntiatibn ; for 
which Titian demanded five hundred Crowns ; 
they for whom it was made, refufmg to come 
up to his price, he, by the advice of Aretin, 
fent it as a Prefent to the Emperour, who 
fent him two thouiand Crowns in Re- 

Net long after, the fame Emperour com- 
ing foom Hungary, met Pope Clement the 
Seventh at Bologna, and there he again lent for 



3& L I F E 0/ 

Titian, who again made his pidture, and that 

of Cardinal Hyppolito of Medici $ : both which 

are preferved among the Duke of Florence his 

Rarities. He drew likewife at the fame time, 

Alphoifo DavaIo% Marquefs Del Guafio, and his 

Friend Pietro Aretino : and here he was brought 

to the prefence of Frederick Gonzaga, Duke of 
Mantoua, whole picture, and his Brother the 

Cardinal's he likewife made ; the Duke carried 
him to Mantoua ; where he made the Heads of 
the Twelve Cafars ; under every one of which 
Giulio Romano made afterwards a Story. 

In the Year 1 546, he was invited to Romeby 
Cardinal Farnefe , whole picture and the 
Pope's, with that of Duke Oclavio of Parma, he 
drew at length; and they are admirable pieces. 
While he was at Rome, being one day vifited 
by Michael Angelo and Vajfari, he mowed them 
a Vanae, a moil dilicate Naked Figure for Co- 
louring and Tendernefs, but not perfectly 
well Defigned ; which made Michael Angelo fay 
afterwards, that if Titian had had his Begin- 
ning in the School of Rome , he would have 
proved the greater!: Painter of his Age ; having 


a great Genius, and much Spirit and Vivacity, 
but he wanted Corretlnefs. He was highly re- 
warded by the Pope for his pains, and return- 
ed well fatisfied to Venice ; but ibmething 
aflonifhed at the Works he had feen of the 
Roman and Florentine Painters. 

He was now called upon once more to 
draw the Emperour, who was grown Old \ 
and he did it admirably, infomuch that the 
Emperour Knighted him, and affigned him a 
Penfion of two hundred Crowns a Year upon 
the Chamber of Naples. He made fome alte- 
ration in his Manner about this time, it be- 
ing very different from what he did when he 
was Young ', for his firft pi&ures are done 
with moft incredible diligence, fo as they will 
bear being looked upon near, and yet (how 
well at a diftance too ;■ but the Works he did 
about this time, are fo full of Strokes and 
Spots, after a certain bold Manner, that they 
feetn nothing near, but look very well at a 
diftance. Which Manner of his feveral Pain- 
ters endeavouring to imitate, have made very 


3^0 Ibe LITE of 

grofs, courfe pieces. This way, though it 
ieems eafie, is the mod: laborious of all ; but 
it is made to hide the pains of the Artift. 

To enumerate here all his Works, were end- 
lefs ; for there was hardly a perfon of any 
Eminence in Italy, whofe pi&ure he did not 
do : he alio made many pieces for the King of 
Spain, Philip the Second : the chief of which is a 
Cena Domini with the twelve Apoftles, being 
a great piece of feven yards long, and moft ex- 
traordinary Beauty. 

He worked with Vigour and Spirit till he 
was about threefcore and fix years Old : but 
it is to be wilhed that he had given over then; 
for what he did afterwards was far fhort of 
thofe done before. He was of a moft admirable 
Conflitution, having never been fick in all 
his Life time, and he never knew any Dif- 
graces of Fortune, but was always healthy, 
pleafant, and happy : his Houfe was the re_ 
lort of all the Ingenious, and of the people of 
the belt Quality, he himfelf being extreamly 
well Bred, and Courteous. His pictures were 



payed at what Rates he pleafed ; io that he 
lived Eafie and Rich : he has adorned all Ita- 
ly, and many other parts of Europe with his 
Works, which are innumerable ; and which 
was more lingular, never had any Competi- 
tor in Venice, either to give him Jealo;ifie or 
Difmrbance ; and thofe few that pretended 
to it, he eafily overcame, having all the No- 
bility and Wits on his fide ; to fome of whom 
he taught his Art ; as particularly, to a very 
fine Gentleman called Gian Maria Verde Zotti, 
who had learned to do Landskips admirably 
under him ; and he has two of the beffc pieces 
of Titian s doing, to wit, an Apollo and a 

Though a great many did work under Ti- 
tian, yet there were but few that attained to 
any great Perfection : he that beft imitated 
his Manner, was one Paris Bondone, whom 77- 
tian was mofl afraid of, and turned him out of 
Doors when he was but eighteen years Old, 
feeing how likely he was to Supplant him : 
A a a He 

3 62 The LIFE of 

He neverthelcfs continued in Venice, and imi- 
tated, not ot only Titian' 's, but Giorgknes way 
perfectly. The befl piece of his doing, 
is a Story in the School of Saint Mary, at 
St. Oiany Polos : it is, when a Fifherman 
prefents the Signoria of Venice with Saint 
Marys Ring \ there are very fine Buildings 
in Profpeclive, round about which fits the 
whole Senate, with the Doge ; and among the 
Senators, there are a great many of them done 
by the Life, of extraordinary Beauty : the 
piece is in Frefco, and got Paris Bondone great 




The L I F E of 


Florentine Sculptor. 

DOnatOy who was likewife called Dona- 
telky and fubfcribed himfelf fo in 
fbme of his Works, was Born at Flo- 
rence, in the Year 1303, and applying himfelf 
to the Art of Defigning, proved, not only a 
molt excellent Sculptor and Statuary, but like- 
wife was very intelligent in Ferfpetlive, Archi- 
tetlure, and all manner of Stucco-Work : His 
Works have fo much Defign, Truth, and 
Grace in them, that they feem with reafon, 
tobeliker the beft things of the Greeks and 
A a a 2 Rq- 

3^4- Tfr. LIFE of 

Romans, than of any others : Which without 
difficuly, gives him the firfl Rank among the 
Sculptors ', he was the ftrft that underftood how 
to put Story in Ufe in Baffo Relievos ; in 
which he fhowed fo much Eafe and Maftery^ 
that he may be faid to have had the true un- 
derftanding of that part of Sculpture. So that 
not only in his Life time, but even in our 
Age, none have come near him in that 

Donato was brought up from a Child in the 
Houfe of Ruberto MarteUi-, and for the fweet- 
nefsof his Temper, and the excellency of his 
Genius, was not only always beloved by him, 
but alfo, by all that Noble Family. 

He wrought many things while he was 
Young \ but that which firft made him 
known, was the Annuntiation of the Angel 
to the Virgin MaryjdX of Grey Stone ; which 
is upon the Altar intheChappel of the C 'a- 
valcanti inSantla Croce in Florence. This he a- 
dorned with a Border of Grottesk-Work, adding 
to it fix boys, who hold Fefioons of Flowers, 


DO NATO. 165 

and feem to hang together out of fear of fal- 
ling from fb high a place ; but particularly, 
he (hovved great Art in the Figure of theVir- 
gin, who fomething frighted with the fud- 
den apparition of the Angel, turns her felf to- 
wards him with a fearful Modefty, and in 
her Countenance is all that Humility and 
Gratitude which fo great a Favour muft needs 
fill her with. The Drapery both of our La^ 
dy and the Angel, is made in Mafterly Fold- 
ings ; in which Donato was already aiming at 
the great Art of the Antients, whofe Fold- 
ings are fo Skilful, that though they are made 
to hide the Naked, yet they feem to difcover 


In the fame Church, near the Story paint-, 
ed by Taddeo Gadd'h he made a Crucifix of Wood> 
in which having taken an infinite deal of 
pains, and being pleafed with it as a rare 
thing, he mowed it to Philippo Brunekfchi, an 
Architect, his Intimate Friend, defiring his 
Opinion of it ', Philippa, whofe Expectation 
had been railed by the words of Donato, {rai- 

$66 The L IF E of 

led a little at the fight of it, finding it much 
below the Excellency Donato had given it ; 
which being obierved by Donato, he begg'd of 
him, that he would, according to the Friend- 
fhip that was between them, tell him truly 
his Opinion of it : to which Philip, who was 
very frank in his Nature, anfwered, that his 
Opinion was, that he had put upon the Crofs 
the Body of fome Peafant, and not one like 
our Saviours, who 'tis probable, was the mofl 
perfect, and fineft (haped and proportioned of 
any that ever was Born. Donato feeing him-- 
felf fmartly touched inftead of Commenda- 
tions, which he expecl:ed } could not forbear re- 
plying, that it was not fo eafie to make a Cru- 
cifix as to Judge of one ; and that \iPhilippo had 
tryed, he would then think his Chrift a Cfirift, 
and not a Peafant ; therefore, faid he, take a 
piece of Wood, Philip, and try. Philip, with- 
out replying, let the Difcourfe fall \ and be- 
ing come home, betook himielf fecretly to 
work a Crucifix, and in fome Months finifhed 


DONATO. 36-1 

it, having ftrove to furpafs Donato, that he 
might juftifie the Judgment he had made of 
his. This done, one Morning he invited Do- 
nato to Dine with him, who accepted the In- 
vitation ; and as they were going together, 
being come to the old Market-place, Philip 
bought fome little things for Dinner, and giv- 
ing them to Donato, defired him to go before, 
and he would follow as foon as had diipatched 
a little Bufinefs, which would be prelentJy 
done : Donato did fb, and being come into the 
Houfe, the firft thing he law in a low Room, 
was a Crucifix placed in a very good Light ; 
having confidered it a while, he found it fb 
well finiflied, and perfect in all kinds, that be- 
ing ferzed with Aftonifhment, he opened his 
hand, and let fall the Apron where were the 
Eggs and Fruit, continuing ftill his Admira- 
tion without minding them : upon which 
Philip coming in, faid fmiling, What do you 
mean, Donato ! What (hall we have for Din- 
ner to day, now you have let it all fall upon 


3 6$ 7 be L IF E of 

the Ground ? I for my part, faid Donato, have 
had my fliare already, but no more words ; I 
muft own that it is thy Gift to make a Chrift, 
mine to make a Peaiant. 

Donato made likewife in Saint Johns Church 
in the fame City, the Sepulture of Pope John 
Cofiia, who was Depofed from the Popedom by 
the Council at Confiance : Cofimo of Medim> in 
whole Houfe this Pope lived and died, caufed 
Donato to make this Tomb. He made the Fi- 
gure of the dead Pope in Bronze, and the Sta- 
tues of Hope and Charity in Marble , and Miche- 
lozzo his Schollar made that of Faith. Over a- 
gainft this Work in the fame Church, is a 
Mary Magdalen of Wood, fo admirably well 
done, as being confumed with her Pennance 
and Hardfhip, that fhe appears nothing but 
Skin and Bone ; and is a Mafter-piece of Dona- 
to's. He worked as much with his Brain as 
with his Hands ; for he made his Figures fo to 
the Place and Light where they were to fland, 
that out of it they did not feem half fo Beau- 

DONATO. 3^5 

tiful ', whereas on the contrary, we fee many 
other Artifts 9 who make things very fine 
in their Working-Rooms, which being remo- 
ved from thence, appear worfe a great 

He made for the COMPANY of 
WE AVERS the Statue of Saint Mark 
the Evangelift, and it was at firft undertaken 
by him and Brunelefchi together ; but at laft, 
by the confent of Brunekfch'h he finifhed it a- 
lone ; this Figure was wrought with fo much 
Judgment, that being upon the Ground, and 
not placed where it was to fland, it had like 
to have been refufed by the Maflers of the 
Company, for want of Skill to underftand its 
true Beauty : but Donato perfwaded them at 
laft, to let him fet it up, telling them, that he 
would take fome more pains with it when it 
was up, and did not doubt but to pleafe them ; 
accordingly, he made a Scaffold, and covered 
the Figure for a Fortnight, as if he had been 
at work about it ; at the end of which time 

B b b 


366 The LIFE of 

he opened it, and filled every body with ad- 
miration at the Excellency of it. 

He made likewife in the Front of SanBa 
Maria del Fiore, four Figures of about five 
Palms high : two of which, made after the 
Life, are in the middle ; and one is Francefco So- 
derini, who was then a Young Man.; and the 
other, Giovanni di Barduccio Cherichini, Nick- 
named 77 Zuccone : and it being as fine a thing 
as any Donato ever made, he was likewife lb 
much pleafed with it, that when lie had a 
mind to be believed in any thing he laid, he 
would, inftead of affirming it by an Oath, lay 
only, By the Love I bear to my Zuccone : and 
while he was working of it, being often piea-i 
ftd with his fuccefs in that Statue, Jie would 
Hand and look upon it, and then fay thele 
words in Italian, Faveila or fu Favella,0 ti vtpga 
ilcacafangue : Which is in Engli(li 3 Speak, <* 
Plague take thee, f peak. 

For the Lords of the City of Florence, he 
made in ■ Call-Mettal, the . Story of Judith eut^ 
ting off Holofernes's tjead :and in the Looks of 

DO NATO. 3*1 

Judith it was eafie to fee the greatnefs of her 
Mind, and the Affiftance from above ; as like- 
wife in the Air of Holoferne j, oppreffed with 
Wine, Sleep, and Death, the fpreading of a 
Faintnefs all over upon the decay of his Spirits, 
which made his Members look weak and lan- 
guifh'd : The Bafis likewife is a Balufied of 
Granite- Stone, of a plain Order,but very grace- 
ful. Vonato was fo pleafed with this piece, 
that he wrote his Name under it in thele 
words, Domtelli Opus : Which he had not done 
yet to any other piece of his. 

He made many things for the Family of 
Medicos : Cojimo of Medicis, who was then the 
Head of that Family, employing him conti- 
nually. 'Tis reported, that by the Recom- 
mendation ofCo/itno, he made a very fine head 
of Bronze for a Oenouefe-Mcrch'dnt-, and made it 
very thin, and poiifhed it, becaufe it was to 
be carried a good way : when it was finished, 
Do.-ato and the Merchant not agreeing about 
the Price, the thing was referred to Cofimo, 
B b b I who 



me Lj_i r n of 

gence, he appears equal to any of the Antient 
Artificers, and far furpaffing all thofe of his 
Time, who were aflonifhed at the greatnefs 
of his Genius : the City ofPadoua ufed all their 
Endeavours to make him their Citizen, and 
oblige him to fettle amongfl: them ; which to 
obtain, they agreed with him to make the 
Story of the Life of Saint Anthony, of Bajfo Re- 
lievo , upon the Border of the great 
Altar : which he performed with fuch 
variety of Competition, and fuch an abun- 
dance of Figures and Perfpeffives, that the 
Matters of the ART do this day admire 

While he was at Padoua, a Florentine Prieft, 
who was Chaplain to a Nunnery, deflred him to 
make a Saint Sebafiian of Wood for their 
Church ; and at the fame time brought him 
an old, ill favoured, milhapen thing, clearing 
him to make it like that : which he endea- 
vouring to do, to humour them, could not 
help neverthelefs, the mowing fome Maitery 


DON AT 0. 37i 

in it, though it were as like the old one as pof- 
fible. Many other Works he did at Padoua, 
where he was continually admired and ap- 
plauded ; which made him refolve to return 
to Florence, faying, That if he fiiould flay any 
longer in a place where he heard nothing but 
high Commendations of himfelf, he mould 
forget all that he had ever learn't \ therefore 
he would go home, that he might hear him- 
lelf blamed fometimes ; that being the grea- 
ter!: Spur an Artift could have to Improve- 

Being returned to Florence, he wrought an 
Infinity of excellent things in all kinds, both 
in Marble,Wood, Stone, and Bronze : the chief of 
which are in the Houfe of Medicls, and thole 
of other of the Nobility. It may truly be 
faid of him, that he was the Father of Sculp- 
ture, being the fir ft that brought the Works 
of the Antients in Repute, and lough t them out 
where they lay neglecled, taking the pains to- 
mend them and fet them in order, as he did ; 
with his own hand all. 

rf 2 Ihe LIFE of 

Ilia word, Vonato wasfo excellent in all the 
parts of a great Sculptor, that he deferves the 
higheft Commendations ; and the rather, be- 
caufe in his time there were very few Antiqui- 
ties dilcovered. He was, as to his own Dif- 
pofition, the moft Obliging and Generous 
that could be, not valuing Money in the 
leaft ; for he ufed to put that which he re- 
ceived into a little Basket, which hung fix'd 
to the Ceiling by a Pully \ and there any of his 
Friends and Schollars ufed to take what they 
wanted, without fo much as acquainting him 
with it : therefore when he grew Old, and 
not able to work, he was fain to accept of the 
Generofity of Cojimo of Medicls, and other 
Friends. 'Tis faid, that Cojimo dying, recom- 
mended him to his Son Piero ; who being very 
careful to execute his Father's Will, beftowed 
a little Countrey Farm upon him, which he 
might very well live out of : and Donato was 
overjoyed at it, thinking that now he was 
provided for, and needed not to fear Starving : 


DO NATO. 373 

Starving ; but for all that, he did not keep 
it above a Year before he gave it back again to 
Piero by a publick Contract, faying, he would 
not lcofe his Quiet ; which he muft do if he 
kept it ; for every two or three days, the Far- 
mer was at him for fome Dammage or Repa- 
rations ; ibmetimes the Wind had untiled the 
Houfe, Ibmetimes his Cattle was pounded or 
died : To all which Donato not being ufed, re- 
iolved to be rid of him and the Land together. 
Piero of Media* laughed heartily at his Com- 
plaints, and taking the Land again, affigned 
him a Rent-Charge of the fame value upon his 
Bank at Florence ; which was paid him every 
Week to his great Content : and fo he made 
an end quietly of his Old-Age, in the eighty 
third year of his Life, and in the Year 

He was Buried in San Lorenzo, next to the 
Body of Cofitnp di Medici*, being very honou- 
rably Interred,and Accompanied to his Grave 
by all the Artifis, and the belt part of the Peo- 
ple of the City. 

Ccc One 


Ibe L IF 1 of 

One thing I mail not forget to tell of him 
in his laft Skknefs ; which was, that fome of 
his Relations came about him, to perfwade 
him to leave them a little Countrey Houfe 
and Land, of a very fmall Value, which he 
had near Prato, telling him, he ought in that 
to gratifie them, as being next a Kin to him : 
Vonato hearing them out, told them, that he 
was lorry he could not oblige them in their 
Recmeft, being refolved to beftow it upon the 
poor Countrey- Man who had always looked 
to it, and endured pains enough about it : 
Thinking that a more reafonable Difpofition, 
than to give it them for a Vifit which they 
now made him when he was a dying, to no 
other end than to get what they could out of 

As for all the things belonging to his Art, 
he diflributed them among his Schollars ; the 
famoufeft of which were, Bertoldo, a Florentine 
Sculptor ■> II RofelUm De/ideio, and Vellano di Pa- 
doua. And indeed, fince his Death, who ever 
has aimed at excelling in Relievo, mufl have 


DON At 0. 375 

iludied his Works ; the number of which is 
fo great,that no Artifi: ever wrought fo much 
as he did ; which was a great happinefs for 
Sculpture \ the great variety of his underta- 
kings being fo many LefTons of all kinds 
in that Profeffion ; in which he mowed both 
Invention , Defign , Practice , Judgment , 
Strength, Sweetnefs ; and in a word, all the 
parts of a Divine and Wonderful Artift. 




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